Works about LZ

The following is divided into three lists of articles, reviews and dissertations. With only a few outstanding exceptions, virtually all the commentary on LZ prior to 1970 was in the form of reviews. Since the bibliography of reviews is intended to help track LZ reputation during his lifetime, I have also includes a handful of brief mentions in critical surveys of American poetry. The more substantial reviews or those by particularly significant authors are listed under both reviews and articles. The cut-off for the list of reviews is the complete edition of “A” (1978), the last work whose publication LZ oversaw.


For articles published only online, see LZ Online. Both lists of articles and reviews, but particularly that of the reviews, are indebted to the bibliographies of Bailey and Terrell, both of which are usefully annotated (See Bibliographies on LZ).


Books and Articles


Abend-David, Dror. “Louis Zukofsky and The West Wing: Metaphors of Mentorship, Yiddish and Translations at Street Level.” Forum: International Journal of Interpretation and Translation 8.1 (2010): 1-35.

___. “Man Engendered: Effeminizing Louis Zukofsky.” CUJHSS [Cankaya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ankara, Turkey] 13.2 (Dec. 2019): 123-140.

Ahearn, Barry. Zukofsky’s “A”: An Introduction. Berkeley: U of California Press, 1983.

___. “About ‘A’.” [Introduction to the New Directions edition of “A” (2011)].

___. “The Adams Connection.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 479-493. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 113-127.

___. “Notes on a Convocation of Disciplines.” Montemora 4 (1978): 251-259.

___. “Origins of ‘A’: Zukofsky’s Material for Collage.” ELH 45.1 (Spring 1978): 152-176.

___. “Two Conversations with Celia Zukofsky.” Sagetrieb 2.1 (Spring 1983): 113-131.

___. “Zukofsky, Marxism, and American Handicraft.” In Scroggins (1997): 94-111.

Albiach, Anne-Marie. “Contrepoint.” Siècle à mains 12 (1970) [with trans. of first half of “A”-9]. Rpt. Anawratha. Le Revest-des-Eaux: Spectres familiers, 1984; Romainville: Al Dante, 2006. 49-57

Altieri, Charles. “The Objectivist Tradition.” Chicago Review 30.3 (Winter 1979): 5-22. Rpt. The Objectivist Nexus, eds. Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Peter Quartermain (1999): 25-36.

Arnold, David. Poetry and Language Writing: Objective and Surreal. Liverpool UP, 2007. 61-74.

Ashton, Jennifer. From Modernism to Postmodernism: American Poetry and Theory in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005 [chapter on “Modernism’s old literalism: Pound, Williams, Zukofsky, and the objectivist critique of metaphor”].

Baker, Peter. Obdurate Brilliance: Exteriority and the Modern Long Poem. Gainesville, FL: U of Florida P, 1991 [includes chap. “‘They’ll tell me it’s difficult’: Stein/Zukofsky].

Baldwin, Neil. “The Letters of William Carlos Williams to Louis Zukofsky: A Chronicle of Trust and Difficulty.” Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 23 (1983): 37-49.

___. “Varieties of Influence: The Literary Relationship of William Carlos Williams and Louis Zukofsky.” Credences: A Journal of Twentieth Century Poetry and Poetics, new series 2.1 (Summer 1982): 93-103.

___. “Zukofsky, Williams, and The Wedge: Toward a Dynamic Convergence.” In Terrell (1979): 129-142.

Baraban, Stephen. “Zukofsky’s ‘The Laws Can Say.’” Explicator 43.2 (1985): 40-41.

Bastos, Mário Vitor. “The Search for Clear Vision: William Shakespeare and Louis Zukofsky’s Poetics.” “So long lives this, and this gives life to thee”: Homenagem a Maria de Paiva Correia. Eds. A. Pinheiro de Sousa, et. al. Lisboa: CEAUL, 2009. 673-682.

Beach, Christopher. ABC of Influence: Ezra Pound and the Remaking of American Poetic Tradition. Berkeley: U of California P, 1992 [includes chap. “Expanding the Poundian Field: Whitman, Williams, and Zukofsky”].

Benveniste, Asa. “Poet on Poet: on Louis Zukofsky.” Ambit 79 (Summer 1979).

Bernlef, J. “Louis Zukofsky: Het ritme van ogen.” De Gids [Netherlands] 130.3 (1967): 179-181.

Bernstein, Charles. Attack of the Difficult Poems: Essay and Inventions. Chicago: Chicago UP, 2011. 134-136 [on “Poem beginning ‘The’”].

___. “Foreword” to Prepositions+: The Collected Critical Essays. Wesleyan UP, 2001. vii-xii.

___. “Introduction” to Louis Zukofsky: Selected Poems. NY: Library of America, 2006. Rpt. Pitch of Poetry (U of Chicago P, 2016): 100-109. Online at Jacket 2.

____. “Louis Zukofsky: An Introduction.” Foreign Literature Studies (Wuhan, China) 28.2 (April 2006): 113-121 [in Chinese].

___. “Thought’s Measure.” L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, Vol. 4/Open Letter fifth series, no. 1 (1982): 7-22. Rpt. Content’s Dream: Essays 1975-1984. Los Angeles: Sun and Moon, 1986. 61-86.

___. “Words and Pictures.” Sagetrieb 2.1 (Spring 1983): 9-34. Rpt. Content’s Dream: Essays 1975-1984. Los Angeles: Sun and Moon, 1986. 114-161 [includes discussion of Bottom].

Beyers, Chris. “Louis Zukofsky in Kentucky in History.” College Literature 30.4 (2003): 71-88.

Booth, Marcella [Spann]. A Catalogue of the Louis Zukofsky Manuscript Collection. Austin: Humanities Research Center, The U of Texas, 1975.

___. “The Zukofsky Papers.” Library Chronicle of the University of Texas, 2 new series (1970): 49-59. Rpt. rev., “The Zukofsky Papers: The Cadence of a Life,” in Terrell (1979): 393-400.

Bradbury, Richard. “Objectivism.” American Poetry: The Modernist Ideal. Eds. Clive Bloom and Brian Docherty. NY: St. Martin’s P, 1995. 131-142.

Brakhage, Stan. “Note on Bottom: on Shakespeare.” Film Culture 32 (Spring 1964): 77 [brief note].

Braun, Richard Emil. “The Original Language: Some Postwar Translations of Catullus.” Grosseteste Review 3.4 (1970): 27-34.

Breslin, Glenna. “Between Niedecker and Zukofsky, An Excerpt.” HOW(ever) 2.1 (Nov. 1984): 10-11. Rpt. rev. “Lorine Niedecker and Louis Zukofsky.” Pacific Coast Philology 20.1-2 (Nov. 1985): 25-32.

Bromidge, David. “On the Page: Discussing the Objectivists” [report on A Conference on the American Objectivists, Sept.-Oct. 1989, Foundation Royaumont, France]. Poetry Flash 201 (Dec. 18989): 1, 4-6, 18.

Brown, Norman O. “Revisioning Historical Identities.” Tikkun 5.6 (Nov/Dec. 1990): 36-40,107-110. Rpt. Apocalypse and/or Metamorphosis (Berkeley: U of California Press, 1991): 158-178 [includes discussion of “‘Mantis,’” “A”-9, Marx and Spinoza].

Bruns, Gerald L. The Material of Poetry: Sketches for a Philosophical Poetics. Atlanta: U of Georgia P, 2005. 88-92.

Bucher, Vincent. “Should We Read Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’-9? Reading, Legibility, Illegibility.” Modernism and Unreadability, eds. Isabelle Alfandary & Axel Nesme. Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2011. 89-102.

Bunting, Basil. “Lettera aperta a Louis Zukofsky.” Il Mare (1 Oct. 1932). The English version, “An Open Letter to Louis Zukofsky,” in Dale Reagan, “Basil Bunting obiter dicta,” Basil Bunting: Man and Poet, ed. Carroll F. Terrell (Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 1981): 240-243 [also included are misc. remarks on LZ from interviews and letters, 265-267]; rpt. Sulfur 14 (1985): 8-10 [a critical response to LZ’s “Objectivists” theories].

___. “Pound and ‘Zuk.’” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 373-374. Rpt. New Directions 39 (1979): 149-150.

___. “Zukofsky.” Basil Bunting on Poetry. Ed. Peter Makin (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1999). 151-170.

Burke, Kenneth. The Humane Particulars: The Collected Letters of William Carlos Williams and Kenneth Burke. Ed. James H. East. Columbia, SC: U of South Carolina P, 2003 [includes Burke’s epistolary remarks on “A” 1-12, 213-216].

Bush, Ronald. “Science, Epistemology, and Literature in Ezra Pound’s Objectivist Poetics (With a Glance at the New Physics, Louis Zukofsky, Aristotle, Neural Network Theory, and Sir Philip Sidney).” The Idea and the Thing in Modernist American Poetry. Ed. Christina Giorcelli. Palermo: Editrice Ila Palma, 2001. 147-172. Rpt. Literary Imagination: Review of the Association of Literary Scholars 4.2 (Spring 2002): 191-210.

Butterick, George F. “With Louis Zukofsky in Connecticut.” Credences: A Journal of Twentieth Century Poetry and Poetics, new series 1.2/3 (Fall/Winter 1981/82): 158-163.

Byrd, Don. The Poetics of the Common Knowledge. Albany: State U of New York P, 1994. 238-260 [section on “The Performance of Person: Louis Zukofsky”].

___. “Getting Ready to Read ‘A’.” boundary 2 10.2 (Winter 1982): 291-308. Rpt. rev. in Poetics of Common Knowledge.

___. “The Shape of Zukofsky’s Canon.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 455-477. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 163-185. Rpt. rev. in Poetics of Common Knowledge.

Campbell, P. Michael. “The Comedian as the Letter Z: Reading Zukofsky Reading Stevens Reading Zukofsky.” In Scroggins (1997): 175-191.

Campos, Augusto de. “Objetivo: Louis Zukofsky.” À Margem da Margem. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1989. 113-25.

Carmody, Todd. “Requiem for Leipzig: Williams, Zukofsky, and Poetic Realism.” The Legacy of William Carlos Williams: Points of Contact. Ed. Ian D. Copestake. Cambridge Scholars Publ., 2007. 31-44.

Carruth, Hayden. “Louis Zukofsky.” Poetry 110.6 (Sept. 1967): 420-422 [review of All].

___. “The Only Way To Get There From Here.” Journal of Modern Literature 4.1 (Sept. 1974): 88-90.

Carson, Luke. Consumption and Depression in Gertrude Stein, Louis Zukofsky and Ezra Pound. NY: St. Martin’s, 1999.

Charters, Samuel. “Essay Beginning ‘All’.” Modern Poetry Studies 3.6 (1973): 241-250.

Clark, Thomas. “Zukofsky’s All.” Poetry 107.1 (Oct. 1965): 55-59.

Clinton, Alan Ramón. Intuitions in Literature, Technology and Politics: Parabilities. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012 [chapter on “Louis Zukofsky and Quantum Criticism (A/One Conclusion)”].

Cole, Peter. “The Object and Its Edge: Rothko, Oppen, Zukofsky, and Newman.” Sagetrieb 5.3 (Winter 1986): 127-145.

Comens, Bruce. Apocalypse and After: Modern Strategy and Postmodern Tactics in Pound, Williams, and Zukofsky. U of Alabama P, 1995.

___. “From A to An: The Postmodern Twist in Louis Zukofsky.” Sagetrieb 10.3 (Winter 1991): 37-62. Rpt. rev. Apocalypse and After (1995).

___. “Soundings: The ‘An’ Song Beginning ‘A’-22.” Sagetrieb 5.1 (Spring 1986): 95-106. Rpt. rev. in Apocalypse and After (1995): 180-186.

Conniff, Brian. “The Modern Lyric and Prospero’s Island.” Twentieth Century Literature 34.1 (Spring 1988): 84-112 [primarily on Auden’s The Mirror and the Sea but with significant discussion of “A”-7 as an exemplary counter-example].

Conquest, Robert. “The Abomination of Moab.” Encounter 34 (May 1970): 56-63 [review of Catullus].

Conte, Joseph. Unending Design: The Forms of Postmodern Poetry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1991 [chapters “Sounding and Resounding Anew: LZ and Lorine Niedecker” 141-163; “Renovated Form: The Sestinas of John Ashbery and LZ” 167-192; “Canonic Form in Weldon Kees, Robert Creeley, and LZ” 192-213].

___. “The Intertextual Obscurity of Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’.” Journal of Language and Verbal Behaviour (St. Petersburg) 9 (2009): 26-32.

Cook, Albert. “Metrical Inventions: Zukofsky and Merwin.” College Literature 24.3 (Oct. 1997): 70-83. Rpt. Forces in Modern and Postmodern Poetry, ed. Peter Baker. Peter Lang, 2007. 89-102.

Cope, Stephen. “Objectivism.” A Companion to Modernist Poetry. Eds. David E. Chinitz & Gail McDonald. Wiley Blackwell, 2014. 281-295.

Cordes, Jocelyn. “Love’s Labor: Reading Zukofsky’s Bottom: on Shakespeare.” Sagetrieb 14.3 (Winter 1995): 77-88.

Corman, Cid. The Practice of Poetry: Reconsiderations of Louis Zukofsky’s A Test of Poetry. Brattleboro, VT and Kyoto, Japan: Longhouse and Origin, 1998.

___. “‘Anew’ Anew.” Kulchur 4 (1961): 100-102.

___. “‘A’-2: Getting On With It.” Sagetrieb 3.3 (Winter 1984): 107-114. Rpt. Paper Air 4.3 (1990): 86-91.

___. “‘A’-3: RICKY with addenda: 1-9.” Origin, fifth series 5 (Spring 1985): 38-66.

___. “‘A’-11: 1300-1950.” Line 14 (Fall 1989): 11-31.

___. “At: Bottom.” Caterpiller pamphlet 2 (May 1966): 1-36. Rpt. Word for Word: Essays on the Arts of Language, vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Black Sparrow Press, 1977. 128-169.

___. “GAMUT/LZ.” Origin, fifth series 4 (Fall 1984): 51-54.

___. “In the Event of Words.” In Terrell (1979): 305-336 [introductory remarks followed by a selection of key “critical statements” quoted from throughout LZ’s works, including a few snippets from letters to Corman].

___. “Love—In These Words.” MAPS 5 (1973): 26-54 [on Barely and widely].

___. “Meeting in Firenze.” Sagetrieb 1.1 (Spring 1982): 120-124 [an account of Corman’s first meeting with LZ in Florence].

___. “Opening Anew.” Line 11 (Spring 1988): 30-40.

___. “Poetry as Translation.” Grosseteste Review 3.4 (1970): 3-20. Rpt. in At Their Word: Essays on the Arts of Language, vol. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: Black Sparrow Press, 1978. 16-30 [on Catullus].

___. “Ryokan’s Scroll.” Sagetrieb 1.2 (Fall 1982): 285-289.

___. “The Transfigured Prose.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 447-453.

___. “Working in the Desert.” Sagetrieb 5.1 (Spring 1986): 53-56 [on the relationship between LZ and EP].

___. “The Z Gambit: Appendix to ‘A’-1.” Origin, fifth series 2 (Winter 1983): 70-87.

Cox, Kenneth. Collected Studies in the Use of English. London: Agenda Editions, 2001.

___. “‘A’-24.” Agenda 11.2-3 (Spring-Summer 1973): 89-91.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Agenda 13/14 (Winter/Spring 1976): 127-130.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Agenda 16.2 (Spring 1978): 11-13.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Collected Studies (2001): 237-247.

___. “The Poetry of Louis Zukofsky: ‘A.’Agenda 9.4-10.1 (Autumn-Winter 1971-1972): 80-89.

___. “The Poetry of Louis Zukofsky.” Montemora 5 (1979): 5-12.

___. “Relations with Pound.” Agenda (1988). Rpt. Collected Studies (2001): 247-256 [review of Pound/Zukofsky correspondence].

___. “Zukofsky and Mallarmé: Notes on ‘A’-19.” MAPS 5 (1973): 1-11. Rpt. rev. as “Tribute to Mallarmé: ‘A’-19,” Scripsi (1984); Collected Studies (2001): 256-270.

Creeley, Robert. Collected Essays of Robert Creeley. Berkeley: U of California P, 1989 [collects 5 pieces on LZ; see below].

___. “All Ears Hear Here.” New York Times Book Review (20 May 1979): 15. Rpt. in Collected Essays (1989): 66-68.

___. “Foreword” to A Test of Poetry. Wesleyan UP, 2000. vii-x.

___. “Foreword” to Complete Short Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. vii-xiv. Rpt. Anew: Complete Short Poetry. NY: New Directions, 2011. vii-xiv.

___. “For L.Z.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 383-385. Rpt. Terrell (1979): 75-78; New Directions 39 (1979): 151-153; Collected Essays (1989): 69-71.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Agenda 4.3-4 (Summer 1966): 45-48; Rpt. in A Quick Graph: Collected Notes & Essays. Ed. Donald Allen. San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970: 128-132; Collected Essays (1989): 54-57 [review of All 1923-1958].

___. “Louis Zukofsky: “A” 1-12 & Barely and Widely.” The Sparrow (Nov. 1962). Rpt. in A Quick Graph Collected Notes & Essays. Ed. Donald Allen. San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970. 121-123.

___. “A Note,” introduction to “A”-1-12. NY: Doubleday, 1967. Rpt. in A Quick Graph Collected Notes & Essays. Ed. Donald Allen. San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970: 133-142;  Collected Essays (1989): 58-65.

___. “A Note on Louis Zukofsky.” Kulchur 14 (Summer 1964): 2-4.

___. “…paradise/our/speech….” Poetry 107-1 (Oct. 1965): 52-55; Rpt. in A Quick Graph: Collected Notes & Essays. Ed. Donald Allen. San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970: 124-127; Collected Essays (1989): 50-53 [review of All].

___. See Celia Zukofsky (1980).

Crisp, Peter. “Louis Zukofsky, 1904-78.” Islands 7 (1978): 89-98.

Crozier, Andrew. “Paper Bunting.” Sagetrieb 14.3 (Winter 1995): 45-74. Rpt. Crozier, Thrills and Frills: Selected Prose, ed. Ian Brinton (Bristol, UK: Shearsman Books, 2013): 89-118.

___. “Zukofsky’s List.” Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Peter Quartermain, eds. The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1999. 275-285. Rpt. Crozier, Thrills and Frills: Selected Prose, ed. Ian Brinton (Bristol, UK: Shearsman Books, 2013): 190-204.

Daive, Jean. “Louis Zukofsky et le style autobiographique,” Foreword to The Writings of Guillaume Apollinaire/ Le Style Apollinaire (with René Taupin). Ed. with introduction by Serge Gavronsky. Wesleyan UP, 2003. vii-xii.

Davenport, Guy. “Zukofsky.” Geography of the Imagination: Forty Essays. San Francisco: North Point, 1981. 100-113.

___. “Ferdinand.” New York Times Book Review (15 June 1969): 5, 31.

___. “Happy Birthday, William Shaxper.” National Review (6 Oct. 1964): 874-876. Rpt. in Geography of the Imagination (1981): 111-113 [review of Bottom].

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Agenda 8.3-4 (Autumn-Winter 1970): 130-137 [review of “A” 13-21 & Catullus].

___. “Ornery Cusses.” National Review (25 March 1969): 288-290 [review of Ferdinand].

___. “Scripta Zukofskii Elogia.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 394-399. Rpt. in Terrell (1979); New Directions 39 (1979): 159-164; Geography of the Imagination (1981):107-111.

___. “Zukofsky’s “‘A’-24.” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 2.2 (Spring-Summer 1974): 15-23. Rpt. in Geography of the Imagination (1981): 100-107.

___. “Zukofsky’s English Catullus.” MAPS 5 (1973): 70-75. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 365-370.

Davidson, Michael. “Dismantling ‘Mantis’: Reification and Objectivist Poetics.” American Literary History 3.3 (Fall 1991): 521-541. Rpt. Ghostlier Demarcations: Modern Poetry and the Material Word (Berkeley: U of California P, 1997): 116-134 [besides “Mantis” also includes extensive discussion of “A”-9].

Davie, Donald. “After Sedley, After Pound.” Nation 201 (1 Nov. 1965): 311-313 [review of All]. Rpt. “Louis Zukofsky.” Two Ways Out of Whitman: American Essays. Manchester, UK: Carcanet, 2000. 128-130.

Dawson, Fielding. “A Memoir Louis Zukofsky.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 571-579. Rpt. Terrell (1979): 103-112.

Dembo, L.S. “Louis Zukofsky: Objectivist Poetics and the Quest for Form.” American Literature 44.1 (March 1972): 74-96. Rpt. Terrell (1979): 283-303.

Dewey, Anne Day. “History as a Force Field in Pound, Zukofsky, and Olson.” Sagetrieb 13.3 (Winter 1994): 83-116. Rpt. Beyond Maximus: The Construction of Public Voice in Black Mountain Poetry. Stanford UP, 2007. 17-43.

Diehl-Jones, Charlene. “Sounding ‘A’.” Line 14 (Fall 1989): 52-71.

Di Manno, Yves. “Centre introuvable.” Java n° 4 (été 1990): 5-6.

Duddy, Thomas A. “The Measure of Louis Zukofsky.” Modern Poetry Studies 3.6 (1973): 250-256.

Duncan, Robert. “A Critical Difference of View.” Stony Brook 3/4 (1969): 360-363; Rpt. The Letters of Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov (2004): 729-733; Collected Essays and Other Prose (2014): 195-201 [defends LZ and others against criticism by Adrienne Rich without direct discussion his work].

___. “As Testimony: Reading Zukofsky These Forty Years.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 421-427. Rpt. A Selected Prose, ed. Robert J. Bertholf (NY: New Directions, 1994): 138-144; The Collected Essays and Other Prose (2014): 339-345. Partially translated by Philippe Mikriammos, « En lisant Zukofsky ces quarante dernières années », Java n°4, été 1990, pp. 35-38.

___. “Introduction.” John Taggart. Dodeka. Membrane, 1979. Rpt. “An Introduction: John Taggart’s Dodeka,” Fictive Certainties. NY: New Directions, 1985. 211-218; The Collected Essays and Other Prose (2014): 353-360 [significantly concerned with LZ, especially “A”-22 and -23].

___. See also under Adrienne Rich.

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. Genders, Races and Religious Cultures in Modern American Poetry, 1908-1934. Cambridge UP, 2001. 166-174 [on “Poem beginning ‘The’”].

___. Purple Passages: Pound, Eliot, Zukofsky, Olson, Creeley and the Ends of Patriarchal Poetry. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 2012 59-85 [chap. “Succession and Supercession, from Z to ‘A’”].

___. “Louis Zukofsky: ‘Laureate of Excision’.” Contemporary Literature 50.1 (Spring 2009): 183-191 [review essay on Scroggins biography].

___. “Lyric and Experimental Poems: Intersections.” Ed. J. Mark Smith, Time in Time: Short Poems, Long Poems and the Rhetoric of North American Avant-Gardism, 1963-2008. McGill-Queen’s UP, 2013. 22-50.

___. “Objectivist Poetry and Poetics.” The Cambridge Companion to Modern American Poetry, ed. Walter Kalaidjian. Cambridge UP, 2015. 89-101.

___. “Objectivist Poetics, ‘Influence,’ and Some Contemporary Long Poems.” Poetics and Praxis “After” Objectivism. Eds. W. Scott Howard & Broc Rossell. U of Iowa P, 2018. 21-37.

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau, and Quartermain, Peter, eds. The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1999.

Đurić, Dubravka. “Objectivist Poetry and Its Conventions in the Context of Modernist and Postmodernist American Poetry.” The Beauty of Conventions: Essays in Literature and Culture, eds. Marija Krivokapić-Knežević & Aleksandra Nikčević-Batrićević. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014. 33-50.

Dworkin, Craig. Dictionary Poetics: Toward a Radical Lexicography. Fordham UP, 2020. 33-76 [Chaps. on “Funk & Wagnalls Practical Standard Dictionary of the English Language and Louis Zukofsky’s Thanks to the Dictionary” and “Webster’s Collegiate and Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’“].

Eastman, Andrew. “La modernité américaine dans la poésie française: Jacques Roubaud et le ‘vers libre’ américain,” Revue Française d’Etudes Américaines, n° 80 («Traduire l’Amérique») (mars 1999): 23-32.

___. “Estranging the Classic: The Zukofskys’ Catullus.” La Revue LISA VII.2 (U of Caen, France 2009). Online.

Enslin, Theodore. “Out of a Deep Need—LZ and ‘A’.” O.ARS 2: Per/ception, ed. Don Wellman. Cambridge, MA (1982): 99-101.

Fauchereau, Serge. “Poésie Objectiviste.” Les Lettres Nouvelles (mai 1967). Rpt. “La poésie en Amérique: l’objectivisme.” Lecture de la poésie américaine, éd. augmentée et illustrée. Paris: Somogy édition d’art, 1998 (1e éd.: Paris, Ed. de Minuit, 1968). 125-140. Trans. Richard Lebowitz, “Poetry in America: Objectivism.” Ironwood 6 [vol. 3, no. 2] (1975): 43-56.

___. “Quelques aînés.” Serge Fauchereau (éd.), 41 poètes américains d’aujourd’hui, n° spécial bilingue. Les Lettres Nouvelles (décembre 1970-janvier 1971): 23-29.

___. Louis Zukofsky: ‘A’ section 12.” La Quinzaine littéraire 16-31 (déc. 2003) nº 867, 8.

Federman, David. “More on Louis Zukofsky.” Poetry 107.4 (Jan. 1966): 271 [note on LZ’s poetics in correspondence section].

Fetzer, Glenn W. “Poésies en fin de siècle sous le signe de l’objectivisme américai.”. François Rouget, avec la collaboration de John Stout (textes réunis et présentés par), Poétiques de l’objet. L’objet dans la poésie française du Moyen-Âge au XXe siècle. Actes du- colloque international de Queen’s University (mai 1999). Paris: Honoré Champion éditeur, coll. Colloques, congrès et conferences. Epoque moderne et contemporaine, 2001. 459-469.

Filreis, Alan. “Tests of Poetry.” American Literary History 15.1 (2003): 27-34.

Finkelstein, Norman. The Utopian Moment in Contemporary American Poetry. Rev. ed. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 1993. 35-46 [chapter “What Was Objectivism?”].

___. “Jewish-American Modernism and the Problem of Identity: With Special Reference to the Work of Louis Zukofsky.” In Scroggins (1997): 65-79. Rpt. revised in Not One of Them in Place: Modern Poetry and Jewish American Identity (Albany, NY: SUNY P, 2001): 35-53.

Finlay, Ian Hamilton. “In Memory.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 376.

Friedman, Alan J. and Carol C. Donley. Einstein as Myth and Muse. Cambridge UP, 1985. 74-78.

Fournier, Michael. “Complete Short Poetry, by Louis Zukofsky.” Sagetrieb 9.3 (Winter 1990): 147-150.

Franciosi, Robert. “Reading Reznikoff: Zukofsky and Oppen.” North Dakota Quarterly 55.4 (Fall 1987): 283-395. Rpt. in The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics, eds. Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Peter Quartermain. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1999. 257-274.

Fredman, Stephen. A Menorah for Athena: Charles Reznikoff and the Jewish Dilemmas of Objectivist Poetry. U Chicago P, 2001.

Gavronsky, Serge. Toward a New Poetics: Contemporary Writing in France. U of California P, 1994. 40-43 [discusses LZ’s reception in France].

___. Mallarmé spectral ou, Zukofsky au travail. La Souterraine, France: La Main courante, 1998.

___. “Borrowing Mallarmé.” Esprit Createur 40.3 (Fall 2000): 72-85.

___. “Con / vers / ation: Louis Zukfosky et Francis Ponge.” Ponge, résolument. Ed. Jean-Marie Gleize. Lyons: ENS Editions, 2004. 145-164.

___. “Guillaume Apollinaire Subsumed Under Louis Zukofsky’s Gaze: ‘…listening receptively…,” introduction to The Writings of Guillaume Apollinaire/Le Style Apollinaire (with René Taupin). Wesleyan UP, 2003. xiii-l.

___. “Mallarmé visible et invisible.” TTR (Traduction Terminologie Rédaction) 12.1 (1999): 115-130.

___. “The object is (in) poetics.” Pequod 34 (1992): 145-59.

___. “Translating Zukofsky.” Golden Handcuffs Review 1.5 (Summer-Fall 2005).

Géfin, Laszlo K. Ideogram: History of a Poetry Method. Austin TX: U of Texas P, 1982. 49-67 [chap. on the Objectivists, “Sincerity and Objectification”].

Gilonis, Harry, ed. Louis Zukofsky, Or Whomever Someone Else Thought He Was: A Collection of Responses to the Work of Louis Zukofsky. Twickenham & Wakefield, UK: North & South, 1988.

___. “Dark Heart: Conrad in Louis Zukofsky’s A,” The Conradian 14.1-2 (1989): 92-101.

___. “The Forms Cut Out of the Mystery: Bunting, Some Contemporaries, and Lucretius’s ‘Poetry of Facts.’” Durham University Journal Supplement: Basil Bunting Special Issue, ed. Richard Caddel (1995): 146-162 [includes discussion of Lucretius in “A”-12].

Ginsberg, Allen. See Celia Zukofsky (1980).

Giorcelli, Cristina. “A Stony Language: Zukofsky’s Zadkine.” The Idea and the Thing in Modernist American Poetry. Ed. Christina Giorcelli. Palermo: Editrice Ila Palma, 2001. 109-139.

___. “Parole in musica, musica di parole: sull’Autobiography di Louis Zukofsky.” Letterature d’America 22 (1984): 67-93.

Golden, Seán. “‘Whose morsel of lips will you bite?’” Some Reflections on the Role of Prosody and Genre as Non-Verbal Elements in the Translation of Poetry.” Nonverbal Communication and Translation. Ed. Fernando Poyatos. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1997. 217-245 [includes discussion of LZ’s homophonic translations, particularly from Welsh in Little].

Golding, Alan. “The ‘Community of Elements’ in Wallace Stevens and Louis Zukofsky.” Wallace Stevens: The Poetics of Modernism. Ed. Albert Gelpi. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985. 121-40.

___. “Louis Zukofsky and the Avant-Garde Textbook.” Chicago Review 55.3-4 (Sept 2010): 27-36.

Golston, Michael. Poetic Machinations: Allegory, Surrealism,Postmodern Poetic Form. Columbia UP, 2015 [chapter on “Entomologies: Louis Zukofsky and Lorine Niedecker”].

___. “Petalbent Devils: Louis Zukofsky, Lorine Niedecker, and the Surrealist Praying Mantis.” Modernism/Modernity 13.2 (April 2006): 325-347. Rtp. in above.

Goodman, George, Jr. “Louis Zukofsky, 74, a Major Poet of Objectivist School and Novelist.” New York Times (14 May 1978): sec. 1: 28 [obituary].

Gordon, David. “A Note on LZ’s Catullus LXI: Theme and Variations.” Sagetrieb 2.2 (Fall 1983): 113-121.

___. “Three Notes on Zukofsky’s Catullus.” In Terrell (1979): 371-381.

___. “Zuk and Ez at St. Liz.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 581-584. Rpt. New Directions 39 (1979): 178.

___. “Zuk on His Toes.” Sagetrieb 1.1 (Spring 1982): 133-141 [primarily about Catullus].

Greene, Jonathan. “Zukofsky’s Ferdinand.” MAPS 5 (1973): 131-136. Rpt. Terrell (1979): 337-341.

Grenier, Robert. “Notes on Coolidge, Objectives, Zukofsky, Romanticism, And &.” Stations 5 (Winter 1978). Rpt. In the American Tree, ed. Ron Silliman (Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 1986):530-343.

___. “Meditation on two lines from Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’-22” (2006). Eclipse [facsimile of 3 page hand-written note].

Grim, William E. “Form and the Long Poem: The Music of Zukofsky’s A.” Pembroke Magazine 24 (1992): 141-146.

___. “The Use of Medieval Music in Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’.” Studies in Medievalism 6, supplement (1996): 176-182.

___. “Musical Form as a Problem in Literary Criticism.” Word and Music Studies: Defining the Field, eds. Walter Bernhart, Steven Paul Scher & Werner Wolf. Amsterdam/Atlanta: Editions Rudopi B.V., 1999. 237-248 [includes brief consideration of “A”].

Hamilton, Colleen J. “History as Medium, Media as History: Louis Zukofsky’s A Test of Poetry.” New Definitions of Lyric: Theory, Technology, and Culture. Ed. Mark Jeffreys. NY: Garland Publ., 1998. 77-98.

Harmon, William. “Eiron Eyes.” Parnassus 7.2 (1979): 5-23. Rpt. Parnassus: Twenty Years of Poetry in Review, ed. Herbert Leibowitz (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1994): 45-63; Twentieth-Century American Literature, vol. 5, ed. Harold Bloom (Chelsea House, 1988). 

Hass, Robert. “Zukofsky at the Outset.” American Poetry Review 34.5 (Sept.-Oct. 2005): 59-70. Rpt. in What Light Can Do: Essays on Art, Imagination and the Natural World. NY: HarperCollins/Ecco, 2012. 219-250.

Hatlen, Burton. “Art and/as Labor: Some Dialectical Patterns in ‘A’-1 through ‘A’-10.” Contemporary Literature 25.2 (Summer 1984): 204-234.

___. “Catullus Metamorphosed.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 539-545. Rpt. rev. as part of “Zukofsky as Translator,” see below.

___. “From Modernism to Postmodernism: Zukofsky’s ‘A’-12.” Sagetrieb 11.1/2 (Spring/Fall 1992): 21-34. Rpt. in Scroggins (1997): 214-229.

___. “A Poetics of Marginality and Resistance: The Objectivist Poets in Context.” In Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Peter Quartermain, eds. The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1999.

___. “Re Reno Odlin: A Riposte.” Paideuma 9 (1980): 579-582.

___. “Stalin and/or Zukofsky: A Note.” Paideuma 8.1 (1979): 149-151.

___. “Zukofsky’s ‘A’: An Introduction, by Barry Ahearn” [review]. Sagetrieb 2.1 (Spring 1983): 147-150.

___. “Zukofsky as Translator.” In Terrell (1979): 345-364.

___. “Zukofsky, Wittgenstein, and the Poetics of Absence.” Sagetrieb 1.1 (Spring 1982): 63-93.

Heller, Michael. Conviction’s Net of Branches: Essays on the Objectivist Poets and Poetry. Southern Illinois University Press, 1985 [two chapters on “LZ’s Objectivist Poetics: Reflections and Extensions” and “The Poetry of LZ: To Draw Speech”].

___. “Objectivists in the Thirties: Utopocalyptic Moments.” The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics. Eds. Rachel Blau DuPlessis & Peter Quartermain. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1999. 144-159. Rpt. Speaking the Estranged: Essays on the Works of George Oppen. Cambridge: Salt Publ., 2008. 13-28.

___. “The Objectivists: Some Discrete Observations.” Ohio Review 26 (1981): 85-95. Rpt. Conviction’s Net of Branches (1985): 1-15.

___. “The Poetry of Louis Zukofsky: To Draw Speech.” Origin 5.1 (1983): 44-55. Rpt. Conviction’s Net of Branches (1985): 22-35.

___. “Some Reflections and Extensions: Zukofsky’s Poetics.” MAPS 5 (1973): 22-25. Rpt. rev. in Conviction’s Net of Branches (1985): 16-21.

___. “‘Writing Occurs’: Reflections on Oppen, Zukofsky and Objectivist Poetics.” Speaking the Estranged: Essays on the Works of George Oppen. Cambridge: Salt Publ., 2008, 29-39.

Helmling, Steven. “Louis Zukofsky.” Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Poets Since World War II, Part 2. Ed. Donald J. Greiner. Detroit: Gale Research, 1980. 422-434.

Henderson, Cathy. “Supplement to Marcella Booth’s ‘A Catalogue of the Louis Zukofsky Manuscript Collection.’” In Oliphant and Dagel: 107-181.

Hennessy, Michael. “Louis Zukofsky, Charles Tomlinson, and the ‘Objective Tradition.’” Contemporary Literature 37.2 (Summer 1996): 333-45.

Hickman, Ben. Crisis and the US Avant-Garde: Poetry and Real Politics. Edinburgh UP, 2015 [chapter on “‘Longing for perfection’: History and Utopia in Louis Zukofsky”].

Hilson, Jeff. “‘It Makes an Indebtedness’: Louis Zukofsky Translating Catullus.” interstice 3 (Autumn 1999).

___. “From A-Z and Bach again: Getting a Handel on ‘A’-24.” Golden Handcuffs Review 14 (Winter-Spring 2011): 260-269.

___. “Homophonic Translation: Sense and Sound.” Music, Text and Translation. Ed. Helen Julia Minors. Bloomsbury, 2013. 95-106.

Holmes, Janet. “Zukofsky vs. Syntax: Reading ‘Gamut.’” American Poet 33 (Fall 2007): 3-6.

Homberger, Eric. “The Invention of the Objectivists.” American Writers and Radical Politics, 1900-39: Equivocal Commitments. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. 176-186.

___. “Communists and Objectivists.” The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics. Eds. Rachel Blau DuPlessis & Peter Quartermain. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1999. 107-125.

Hooley, Daniel M. “Tropes of Memory: Zukofsky’s Catullus.” Sagetrieb 5.1 (Spring 1986): 107-123. Rpt. in The Classics in Paraphrase: Ezra Pound and Modern Translators of Latin Poetry (London/Toronto: Associated UP, 1988): 55-69.

Horáček, Josef. “Pedantry and Play: the Zukofsky Catullus.” Comparative Literature Studies 51.1 (2014): 106-131.

Howard, W. Scott & Broc Rossell. “Introduction: ‘After’ Objectivism: Sincerity, Objectification, Contingency.” Poetics and Praxis “After” Objectivism. Eds. Howard & Rossell. U of Iowa Press, 2018. 1-20.

Howarth, Peter. The Cambridge Introduction to Modernist Poetry. Cambridge UP, 2012. 202-209 [section on “Zukofsky and the Objectivists”].

Hunt, Erica. “Beginning at ‘Bottom.’” Poetics Journal 3 (May 1983): 63-66. Rpt. Poetics Journal Digital Archive, eds. Lyn Hejinian & Barrett Watten (Wesleyan UP, 2014): 805-809.

Ignatow, David. “Louis Zukofsky—Two Views.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 549-51.

Irby, Kenneth. [Review of] Bottom: on Shakespeare. Kulchur 16 (Winter 1964-65): 98-103.

___. “Some Notes on Zukofsky’s 80 Flowers and Michele J. Leggott’s Reading Zukofsky’s 80 Flowers.” Sulfur 34 (1994): 234-249.

Ivry, Jonathan. “‘[A]ll / things began in Order to / end in Ordainer’: The Theological Poetics of Louis Zukofsky from ‘A’ to X.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 51.2 (Summer 2009): 203-222.

Jenkins, G. Matthew. Poetic Obligation: Ethics in Experimental American Poetry. U of Iowa P, 2008. 23-31 [chap. On “Objectivist Poethics”].

Jennison, Ruth. The Zukofsky Era: Modernity, Margins and the Avant-Garde. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2012.

___. “Combining Uneven Developments: Louis Zukofsky and the Political Economy of Revolutionary Modernism.” Cultural Critique 77 (Winter 2011): 146-179.

Johnson, Kent. “A Fractal Music: Some Notes on Zukofsky’s Flowers.” In Scroggins (1997): 257-275.

Johnson, Ronald. “L.Z.” L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E 4 (Aug. 1978) 2-3 [brief note].

Jones, Alan. “The Zukofsky-Zadkine Files.” Arts Magazine 66.5 (Jan. 1992): 25-26.

Jones, Peter. “Louis Zukofsky.” Poetry Nation (London) 5 (1975): 109-114.

Kadlec, David. “Early Soviet Cinema and American Poetry.” Modernism/Modernity 11.2 (2004): 299-331.

Kalck, Xavier. “We Said Objectivist”: Lire les poètes Lorine Niedecker, George Oppen, Carl Rakosi, Charles Reznikoff, Louis Zukofsky. Sorbonne Université Presses, 2019.

___. “Formalism as Mysticism: Reading Jewish American Poets Louis Zukofsky and Charles Reznikoff.” Anglophonia/Caliban 35 (2014): 117-132. Online.

Kasemets, Udo. Z for Zuk for Zukofsky: A Celebration of 80 Flowers. Toronto: Sun, 1995.

Kelly, Louis. The True Interpreter. NY: St. Martins, 1979 [includes discussion of Catullus].

Kelly, Robert. “A Book of Solutions.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 400.

___. “Song? / After Bread: Notes on Zukofsky’s A 1-12.” Kulchur 12 (Winter 1963): 33-63. Rpt. A Voice Full of Cities: The Collected Essays of Robert Kelly. Eds. Pierre Joris & Peter Cockelbergh (Contra Mundum Press, 2014): 18-41.

Kenner, Hugh. A Homemade World: The American Modernist Writers. New York: William Morrow, 1975.

___. “Bottom on Zukofsky.” Modern Language Notes 90.6 (Dec. 1975): 921-922 [introduction to short excerpt from Bottom].

___. “Foreword” to Prepositions: The Collected Critical Essays of LZ, expanded ed. Berkeley: U of California P, 1981. vii-x.

___. “Loove in Brooklyn.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 413-420. Rpt. in New Directions 39 (1979): 166-175; Historical Fictions: Essays on Literature (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1990): 122-132.

___. “Louis Zukofsky: All the Words.” New York Times Book Review (18 June 1978). Rpt. in Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 386-89; New Directions 39 (1979): 154-157; Mazes: Essays (SF: North Point, 1989): 312-316.

___. “Of Notes and Horses.” Poetry 111.2 (Nov. 1967): 112-121. Rpt. in Terrell (1970): 187-194 [review of “A” 1-12].

___. “Oppen, Zukofsky, and the Poem as Lens.” Literature at the Barricades: The American Writer in the 1930s. Eds. Ralph Bogardus and Fred Hobson. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1982. 162-171.

___. “Too Full for Talk: ‘A’-11.” MAPS 5 (1973): 12-21. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 195-202.

Kimball, Jack. “William Bronk and Family.” The Body of This Life: Reading William Bronk, ed. David Clippinger. Jersey City, NJ: Talisman House Publs., 2001. 94-103 [much of this article makes comparisons between Bronk and LZ].

Kolokithas, Dawn. “love: reason:: eyes: mind.” Poetry Flash 201 (Dec. 1989): 1, 18 [on Bottom]. 

Krantz, Larry. “Three Neglected Poets.” Wagner Literary Magazine (Spring 1959): 52-63 [on Mina Loy, Parker Tyler & LZ; includes the poem “1959 / Valentine”].

Kritikos, Dean. “The Home Front Waste Land: Williams, Zukofsky and Epistemology after Eliot.” War, Literature and the Arts 27 (2015).

Ku, Tae-Hun. “A Reconstruction of ‘An Objective’: Eliot, Zukofsky and Stevens.” Journal of the T.S. Eliot Society of Korea 24.1 (2014): 1-24.

Lang, Abigail. Le Monde, compte rendu. Lectures de Louis Zukofsky. ENS Editions, 2011.

___. “Comment finir?” in Louis Zukofsky, 80 fleurs, trans. Abigail Lang (Caen: Éditions NOUS, 2018): 91-99.

___. “How to End a Life-Work: Louis Zukofsky’s Indexes.” American Poetry: Whitman to the Present. Eds. Robert Rehder & Patrick Vincent. Tübingen, Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag, 2006. 127-138.

___. “Louis Zukofsky et la mémoire des mots.” Mémories perdues, memories vives. Eds. Marie-Christine Lemardeley, Carle Bonafous-Murat & André Topia. Paris: Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2006. 131-145.

___. “The Ongoing French Reception of the Objectivists.” Transatlantica: American Studies Journal 1 (Revolution of the Word) (2016): Online.

___. “‘Reading slipperwort’: des articulations syntaxiques dans 80 Flowers de Louis Zukofsky.” Revue française d’études américaines, n° 103, «Poètes américains: architectes du langage» (février 2005): 93-103.

___. “Sur Louis Zukofsky. Index.” Action poétique n° 176, juin 2004, pp. 64-69.

___. “To ‘tune in’ to the human tradition: Louis Zukofsky’s Homophonic Practice.” Sound/Writing – traduire-écrire entre le son et le sens: Homophonic translation – traducson – Oberflächenübersetzung, eds. Vincent Broqua & Dirk Weissman. Éditions des archives contemporaines, 2019. Online.

Laughlin, James. The Way it Wasn’t: From the Files of James Laughlin. Eds. Barbara Epler and Daniel Javitch. NY: New Directions, 2006. 336 [very brief autobiographical note on LZ].

Lefevre, André. Translating Poetry: Seven Strategies and a Blueprint. Assen/Amsterdam: Jan Gorcum, 1975. 20-26 [includes discussion of Catullus].

Leggott, Michele J. Reading Zukofsky’s 80 Flowers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1989.

___. “‘See How the Roses Burn!’ The Epigraph of Zukofsky’s 80 Flowers.” Sagetrieb 4.1 (Spring 1985): 115-136.

___. “Sharing airs and booting the loot: Duncan and Zukofsky, H.D. in the wings.” Boxkite: a journal of poetry and poetics (Sydney) 2 (Aug. 1998): 13-26.

Levertov, Denise. “A Necessary Poetry.” Poetry 97.2 (Nov. 1960): 102-109 [review of “A” 1-12].

Levi Strauss, David. “Approaching 80 Flowers.” Code of Signals: Recent Writings in Poetics. Ed. Michael Palmer. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1983. 79-102.

___. “On Duncan and Zukofsky on Film, Traces Now and Then.” Poetry Flash 135 (1984).

___. “Zukofsky—‘It’s the music that’s important.’” Temblor 10 (1989): 213-214.

Lewis, Leon. “Aural Invention as Floral Splendor: Louis Zukofsky’s Vision of Natural Beauty in 80 Flowers.” The Writer’s Chronicle 40.4 (Feb. 2008): 24-29. Online

Ma, Ming-Qian. “A ‘no man’s land!’: Postmodern Citationality in Zukofsky’s ‘Poem beginning “The”’.” In Scroggins (1997): 129-153. Rpt. in Poetry as Re-Reading: American Avant-Garde Poetry and the Poetics of Counter-Method. Northwestern UP, 2008.

Maerhofer, John W. Rethinking the Vanguard: Aesthetic and Political Positions in the Modernist Debate, 1917-1962. Cambridge Scholars Publ., 2009. 139-153 [chap. on “The Dialectics of Vanguardism: Left and Right Movements, 1930-1948”].

Malanga, Gerald. “Some Thoughts on Bottom and After I’s.” Poetry 107.1 (Oct. 1965): 60-64.

Mandell, Stephen R. “A Search for Form: Einstein and the Poetry of Louis Zukofsky and William Carlos Williams.” Einstein and the Humanities. Ed. Dennis P. Ryan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/Hofstra U, 1987): 135-139.

Mann, Paul. “Translating Zukofsky’s Catullus.” Translation Review 21/22 (1986): 3-9.

Marsh, Alec. “Poetry and the Age: Pound, Zukofsky, and the Labor Theory of Value.” In Scroggins (1997): 112-126.

McAllister, Andrew, ed. The Objectivists. Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe, 1996.

McCaffery, Steve. “Some Notes & Instances of N.R.T. [Numerical Replacement Method of Translation].” New Wilderness Letter 1.2 (July/Aug. 1977): [16-20].

McMorris, Mark. “Postcolonial ‘A’? Empire & Nation in Louis Zukofsky’s American Movements, ‘A’-14 – ‘A’-17.” Xcp: Cross Cultural Poetics 8 (2001): 11-22.

___. “Zukofsky’s Bilingual Catullus: Theoretical Articulations upon the Translator’s Method.” Paideuma 35.1 & 2 (2008): 217-249.

Melnick, David. “The ‘Ought’ Of Seeing: Zukofsky’s Bottom.” MAPS 5 (1973): 55-65.

Merton, Thomas. “Paradise Bugged.” Critic 25 (Feb.-March 1967): 69-71. Rpt. as “Zukofsky—The Paradise Ear.” The Literary Essays of Thomas Merton. NY: New Directions, 1981. 128-133.

Mittenthal, Robert. “Zukofsky’s Love’s Song a Circle Sent: The Valentine Written To-Two: Initial Period of ‘A’-22 and its Correspondence.” Line 14 (Fall 1989): 32-51.

Monacell, Peter. “In the American Grid: Modern Poetry and the Suburbs.” Journal of Modern Literature 35.1 (Fall 2011): 122-142.

Moore, Nicholas. “Hot Cat on a Cold Tin Roof Blues (or, Get Your Boots Laced, Fullus—Here Comes That Guy ‘Cat’Ullus.” Poetry Review (London) 62 (1971): 179-187.

Mottram, Eric. “1924-1951: Politics and Form in Zukofsky.” MAPS 5 (1973): 76-103.

Murphet, Julian. Multimedia Modernism: Literature and the Anglo-American Avant-garde. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. 166-202 [includes chap. “Zukofsky’s Cinema”].

___. “‘Events listening to their own tremors’: Zukofsky and Objective Anachrony.” Textual Practice 26.4 (2012): 707-727.

Nadel, Ira B. “‘A Precision of Appeal’: Louis Zukofsky and the Index of American Design.” In Scroggins (1997): 112-26.

Niedecker, Lorine. “The Poetry of Louis Zukofsky.” Quarterly Review of Literature 8 (April 1956): 198-210. Rpt. in From This Condensery: The Complete Writings, ed. Robert J. Bertholf (Highlands, NC: Jargon Society, 1985): 292-306. Online.

___. “A Review of Louis Zukofsky’s A Test of Poetry.” Capital Times (Madison, WI) 18 December 1948. Online.

Nirenberg, Ricardo. “The Sky Over Louis Zukofsky and Some Others.” Litteraria Pragensia: Studies in Literature and Culture 15.29 (2005): 64-77.

Odlin, Reno. “Materials Toward an Essay on Zukofsky’s ‘A’”. Paideuma 9.3 (Winter 1980): 551-560 and 10.2 (Fall 1981): 315-325.

___. “Brief Notes on ‘A’”. Sagetrieb 1.1 (Spring 1982): 100-102.

Oliphant, David. Harbingers of Books to Come: A Texan’s Literary Life. San Antonio, TX: Wings Press, 2009 [describes various dealings and meetings with LZ as literary editor].

Oliphant, Dave and Gena Dagel, eds. Lawrence, Jarry, Zukofsky: A Triptych—Manuscript Collections at Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center. Austin, TX: Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, 1987.

Oppen, George. “My Debt to Him.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 375. Rpt. in Terrell (1979); New Directions 39 (1979): 150 [short note].

Orange, Tom. “William Carlos Williams between Image and Object.” Sagetrieb 18.2 & 3 (2002): 127-156 [includes extensive discussion of the development of WCW’s poetics in relation to LZ’s formulation of “Objectivist” poetics].

Pacernick, Gary. “Louis Zukofsky: Patriarchal Memory.” Memory and Fire: Ten American Jewish Poets (Vol. 1 of Twentieth-Century American Jewish Writers). P. Lang, 1989. 99-118.

Palmer, Michael. “On Objectivism.” Sulfur 26 (1990): 117-126. Rpt. in Active Boundaries: Selected Essays and Talks. NY: New Directions, 2008. 226-236.

___. “Period (senses of duration).” Code of Signals: Recent Writings in Poetics. Ed. Michael Palmer. North Atlantic Books, 1983. 81-95. Online.

Parker, Richard (Thomas Arie). “‘A’ and the A’s: Louis Zuko‘v’sky goes West.” Textual Practice 26.6 (2012): 1065-1080.

___. “Canto 75 vs. ‘A’-24.” Golden Handcuffs Review 14 (Winter-Spring 2011): 270-285.

___. “Louis Zukofsky’s American Zen.” Modernism and the Orient. Ed. Zhaoming Qian. U of New Orleans P, 2012. 232-248.

___. “Louis Zukofsky’s London: From Pound to Pastoral.” The Literary London Journal 11.1 (Spring 2014): 22-31. Online.

Parsons, Marnie. Touch Monkeys: Nonsense Strategies for Reading Twentieth-Century Poetry. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1993.

___. “A More Capacious Shoulder: ‘A’-24, Nonsense, and the Burden of Meaning.” In Scroggins (1997): 230-256.

___. “The Nonsense Recorded Its Own Testimony’: Zukofsky’s ‘A’-24.” West Coast Line 27.2 (Fall 1993): 105-116.

Pearson, Ted. “Something in the Way It Moves.” Sagetrieb 1.2 (Fall 1982): 307-308 [notes on “A”-9].

Penberthy, Jenny. Niedecker and the Correspondence with Zukofsky, 1931-1970. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993.

Perelman, Bob. The Trouble with Genius: Reading Pound, Joyce, Stein, and Zukofsky. Berkeley: U of California P, 1994.

___. “‘A’-24.” L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E 8 (Vol. 2, No. 2) (June 1979): [6-8]. Rpt. in The L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Book. Eds. Bruce Andrews and Charles Bernstein. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1984. 292-293. Online at Eclipse.

___. “Foreword” to Bottom: on Shakespeare. Wesleyan UP, 2002. vii-xiii.

___. “Zukofsky at 100: Zukofsky as a Body of Work.” Radical Poetics and Secular Jewish Culture. Eds. Daniel Morris & Stephen Paul Miller. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2009. 40-48. Rpt. Modernism the Morning After. U of Alabama P, 2017. 200-109.

Perloff, Marjorie. “Barbed-Wire Entanglements: The New American Poetry 1930-32,” Modernism/Modernity 2.1 (Jan. 1995): 145-75. Rpt. in Poetry On and Off the Page: Essays for Emergent Occasions (Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 1998): 51-82.

___. “The Contemporary of Our Grandchildren: Ezra Pound and the Question of Influence.” Pound among the Poets, ed. George Bornstein. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1985. 195-229. Rpt. in Poetic License: Essays on Modernist and Postmodernist Lyric. Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 1990. 119-144 [an earlier version of the section on LZ appeared in “Postmodernism and the Impasse of Lyric.” Formations 1.2 (Fall 1984): 43-63].

___. “The Return of the (Numerical) Repressed: From Free Verse to Procedural Play.” Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media. U of Chicago P, 1994. 134-170 [examines “Starglow” from 80 Flowers].

___. “Playing the Numbers: The French Reception of Louis Zukofsky.” Verse 22-23 (2006): 102-120.

Pestell, Alex. “‘All in for folly and mustard’: Pound, Zukofsky and Word is Born” in News from Afar: Ezra Pound and Some Contemporary British Poetics, ed. Richard Parker. Bristol: Shearsman, 2014. 303-312.

Ponichtera, Sarah. “Louis Zukofsky: Building a Poetics of Translation.” In geveb: A Journal of Yiddish Studies (Dec. 2019). Online.

Pound, Ezra. “‘Active Anthology’ (Retrospect twenty months later).” Polite Essays. London: Faber & Faber, 1937. Rpt. in Selected Prose 1909-1965, ed. William Cookson (NY: New Directions: 1973): 399-400 [a brief addendum to EP’s original preface to his Active Anthology (Faber & Faber, 1933), “Praefatio, aut tumulus cimicium,” when he collected it in Polite Essays. In “Notes on Particular Details” at the back of Active Anthology, EP includes some critical remarks on LZ and Objectivists (253-254).]

Pratt, E.J. “The Fly-Wheel Lost.” Open House. Eds. William Arthur Deacon & Wilfred Reeves. Ottawa: Graphic Publ., 1931. 246-255. Rpt. in Pursuits: Amateur and Academic: The Selected Prose of E.J. Pratt, ed. Susan Gingell. U of Toronto P, 1995: 59-65.

Quartermain, Peter. Disjunctive Poetics: From Gertrude Stein and Louis Zukofsky to Susan Howe. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992.

___. Stubborn Poetries: Poetic Facticity and the Avant-Garde. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2013.

___. “‘Actual Word Stuff, Not Thought for Thoughts’: Louis Zukofsky and William Carlos Williams.” Credences: A Journal of Twentieth Century Poetry and Poetics, new series 2.1 (Summer 1982): 104-122. Rpt. in Disjunctive Poetics (1992): 90-103.

___. “‘I Am Different, Let Not a Gloss Embroil You.’” Paideuma 9.1 (Spring 1980): 203-210 [review of 1978 edition of “A”]. Rpt. rev. as “‘Instant Entirely’: Zukofsky’s ‘A’” in Disjunctive Poetics (1992): 59-69.

___. “Louis Zukofsky—Re: Location.” Open Letter 6 (Fall1973): 54-64.

___. “‘Not at All Surprised by Science’: Louis Zukofsky’s First Half of ‘A’-9.” In Terrell (1979): 203-226. Rpt. in Disjunctive Poetics (1992): 70-89.

___. “‘Only Is Order Othered. Nought Is Nulled’: Finnegans Wake and Middle and Late Zukofsky”. ELH 54.4 (Winter 1987): 957-978. Rpt. in Disjunctive Poetics (1992): 104-120.

___. “Parataxis in Basil Bunting and Louis Zukofsky.” Sharp Study and Long Toil, ed. Richard Caddel. Durham University Journal, Supplement (March 1995): 54-70. Rpt. in Stubborn Poetries (2013): 46-68.

___. “Recurrencies: No. 12 of Louis Zukofsky’s Anew.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 523-538. Rpt. in Disjunctive Poetics (1992): 44-58.

___. “Thinking with the Poem.” Golden Handcuffs Review 1.5 (Summer/Fall 2005). Rpt. in Stubborn Poetries (2013): 87-97. On-line here.

___. “Writing and Authority in Zukofsky’s Thanks to the Dictionary.” In Scroggins (1997): 154-174. Rpt. Stubborn Poetries (2013): 69-86.

Raffel, Burton. “No Tidbit Love You Outdoors Far as a Bier: Zukofsky’s Catullus.” Arion 8 (Autumn 1969): 434-445.

Rakosi, Carl. “Scenes from My Life.” The Collected Prose of Carl Rakosi. Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 1983. 85-118 [includes a section of several pages on LZ and “Objectivists”].

Rasula, Jed. “The Style of Old Age.” Sulfur 12 (1985): 127-132.

Redman, Tim. “Louis Zukofsky.” American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement III, Part 2. Eds. Lea Baechler and A. Walton Litz. NY: Schribners’ Sons, 1991. 609-632.

Reisman, Jerry. “On Some Conversations with Celia Zukofsky.” Sagetrieb 10.3 (Winter 1991): 139-150.

___. “Lorine: Some Memories of a Friend.” Lorine Niedecker: Woman and Poet, ed. Jenny Penberthy. National Poetry Foundation, 1996. 35-38.

Rexroth, Kenneth. “Examen de Conscience (Epistle to Louis Zukofsky.)” New Review 2.5 (Spring 1932): 7-11 [critical response to An “Objectivists” Anthology in the form of a letter (“to be continued”) dated 30 Dec. 1930; apparently the original intention was to present an exchange of letters].

___. “From the Past, Two Familiar Voices.” New York Times Book Review (28 July 1957): 5 [review of Some Time].

Reznikoff, Charles. “Entries for Encyclopedia Judaica: Louis Zukofsky.” Charles Reznikoff: Man and Poet. Ed. Milton Hindus. Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 1984. 408-409.

Rich, Adrienne. “Beyond the Heirlooms of Tradition.” Poetry 105.2 (Nov. 1964): 128-129 [review of Found Objects. Although he does not specifically discuss LZ, Robert Duncan responded critically to this review in “A Critical Difference of View,” Stony Brook 3/4 (Fall 1969): 360-363; rpt. Collected Essays and Other Prose, ed. James Maynard (U of California P, 2014): 195-202 and The Letters of Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov, eds. Robert J. Bertholf and Albert Gelpi (Stanford UP, 2003): 729-733].

Rieke, Alison. The Senses of Nonsense. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1992.

___. “‘Quotation and Originality’: Notes and Manuscripts to Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’.” In Oliphant and Dagel, eds. (1987): 77-105.

___. “Word’s Contexts, Contexts’ Nouns: Zukofsky’s Objectivist Quotations.” Contemporary Literature 33.1 (1992): 113-134. Rpt. in The Senses of Nonsense (1992): 200-218.

Rifkin, Libbie. Career Moves: Olson, Creeley, Zukofsky, Berrigan, and the American Avant-Garde. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 2000. 72-107 [chap. on “Legacy of LZ”].

___. “Association/Value: Creative Collaborations in the Library.” RBM: A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts and Cultural Heritage 2.2 (Fall 2001): 123-137 [revised in above].

Rosenquist, Rod. Modernism, the Market and the Institution of the New. Cambridge UP, 2009. 138-174 [chap. on “Objectivist Adventures in the ‘Pound Tradition’”].

Rosenthal, M.L. “Zukofsky: ‘All My Hushed Sources.’” In Terrell (1979): 227-234; Rpt. Our Life in Poetry: Selected Essays and Reviews. Persea Books, 1991. 427-432.

Rothenberg, Jerome. “Louis Zukofsky, a Reminiscence.” Poetics & Polemics, 1980-2005. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama, 2008.

Roubaud, Jacques. “Poétique comme exploration des changements de forme. A – La Destruction de la sextine.” Jean-Pierre Faye et Jacques Roubaud (sous la dir. de), Change de forme. Biologies et prosodies. Changement de forme, Révolution, Langage – 1, Actes du colloque «Changement de forme, Révolution, Langage» (du 2 au 11/07/1973, Centre Culturel International de Cerisy-La-Salle). Paris: Union Générale d’Editions, coll. 10/18, 1975. 74-86.

Salvato, Nick. Uncloseted Drama: American Modernism and Queer Performance. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2010. 60-98 [inncludes chap. “Bottoming Zukofsky”].

___. “Louis Zukofsky’s Old English Sources for ‘A’-23.” Notes and Queries 49.1 (March 2002): 85-88.

Schelb, Edward. “The Exaction of Song: Louis Zukofsky and the Ideology of Form.” Contemporary Literature 31.3 (Fall 1990): 335-353.

___. “Through Rupture to Destiny: Repetition in Zukofsky.” Sagetrieb 9.1&2 (Spring & Fall 1990): 25-42.

Schimmel, Harold. “Zuk. Yehoash David Rex.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 559-569. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 235-245.

Schuster, Joshua. “Looking at Louis Zukofsky’s Poetics through Spinozist Glosses.” Radical Poetics and Secular Jewish Culture. Eds. Daniel Morris & Stephen Paul Miller. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2009. 127-150.

Schwartz, Judith. “‘The World Is the Greatest Thing in the World’: The Objectivists’ ‘Immanent’ Pastoral.” Literature of Nature: An International Sourcebook. Ed. Patrick D. Murphy. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publ., 1998. 32-36.

Scroggins, Mark. Louis Zukofsky and the Poetry of Knowledge. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1998.

___. The Poem of a Life: A Biography of Louis Zukofsky. Shoemaker Hoard, 2007 [referenced as Scroggins Bio in notes].

___. Intricate Thicket: Reading Late Modernist Poetries. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2015.

___. ed. Upper Limit Music: The Writing of Louis Zukofsky. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1997.

___. “‘A’ to ARK: Zukofsky, Johnson, and an Alphabet of the Long Poem.” Facture 1 (2000): 143-152.

___. “An Ernster Mensch at Columbia” and “Adams: Phases of History.” Chicago Review 50.2/3/4 (Winter 2004/05): 7-38 [two chapters from The Poem of a Life: A Biography of Louis Zukofsky].

___. “From the Late Modernism of the ‘Objectivists’ to the Proto-postmodernism of ‘Projective Verse.’” The Cambridge Companion to American Poetry Since 1945. Ed. Jennifer Ashton. Cambridge UP, 2013. 16-30.

___. “‘The Lighthouses’: George Oppen” in Intricate Thicket (2015): 220-223 [on the biographical context of Oppen’s poem addressed to LZ]. Online here.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Dictionary of Literary Biography 165. Ed. Joseph Conte. Detroit: Gale Research, 1996. 283-300.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Holocaust Literature: An Encyclopedia of Writers and Their Work, vol. II. Ed. S. Lillian Kremer. NY: Routledge, 2003. 1360-1362.

___. “Notes and Numbers (Johnson, Ives, Zukofsky).” Ronald Johnson: Life and Works. Eds. Joel Bettridge and Eric Murphy Selinger. Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 2008. 3-23. Rpt. Intricate Thicket (2015): 128-143.

___. “Objectivist Poets.” A History of Modernist Poetry. Eds. Alex Davis & Lee M. Jenkins. Cambridge UP, 2015. 381-398.

___. “The Revolutionary Word: Louis Zukofsky, New Masses and Political Radicalism in the 1930s.” In Scroggins (1997): 44-64. Rpt. rev. in Louis Zukofsky and the Poetry of Knowledge (1998): 140-161.

___. “A ‘Sense of Duration’ Wallace Stevens, Louis Zukofsky, and ‘Language.’” Sagetrieb 11.1 & 2 (Spring & Fall 1992): 67-83. Rpt. rev. in Louis Zukofsky and the Poetry of Knowledge (1998): 263-283.

___. “‘There are less Jews left in the world’: Louis Zukofsky’s Holocaust Poetry.” Shofar 21.1 (Fall 2002): 63-73.

___. “‘To Breathe the “Literal” Meaning’: Zukofsky’s Catullus.” Talisman 6 (Spring 1991): 42-44.

___. “US Modernism II: The Other Tradition—Williams, Zukofsky, and Olson.” The Cambridge Companion to Modernist Poetry. Eds. Alex Davis & Lee M. Jenkins. Cambridge UP, 2007. 181-194.

___. “Z-Sited Path: Late Zukofsky and His Tradition.” The World in Time and Space: Towards a History of Innovative American Poetry in Our Time. Eds. Edward Foster and Joseph Donahue. Jersey City, NJ: Talisman House Publishers 2002. 147-160. Rpt. Intricate Thicket (2015): 29-41.

___. “Zukofsky’s Bottom: on Shakespeare: Objectivist Poetics and Critical Prosody.” West Coast Line 27.3 (Fall 1993): 17-36. Rpt. rev. in Louis Zukofsky and the Poetry of Knowledge (1998): 68-94.

Seidman, Hugh. “L.Z. at Polly Tech.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 553-558. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 97-102 as “Louis Zukofsky at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (1958-61).”

___. See Celia Zukofsky (1980).

Shapiro, Harvey. “Thinking of the Zukofskys.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 390-391.

Sharp, Tom. “The ‘Objectivists’ Publications.” Sagetrieb 3.3 (Winter 1984): 41-47. Online.

___. “Sincerity and Objectification.” Sagetrieb 2.1 (Fall 1982): 255-266.

Sherwood, Kenneth. “Introduction” to A Useful Art: Essays and Radio Scripts on American Design. Wesleyan UP, 2003. 1-13.

Shoemaker, Steve. “Between Contact and Exile: Louis Zukofsky’s Poetry of Survival.” In Scroggins (1997): 23-43.

Shreiber, Maeera Y. Singing in a Strange Land: A Jewish American Poetics. Stanford UP, 2007. 98-142 [chap. On “‘Speaking about epics’: Zukofsky, Oppen, History, and the ‘Tale of the Tribe’”].

Sternlicht, Stanford V. The Tenement Saga: The Lower East Side and Early Jewish American Writers. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 2004. 124-126 [this short biographical overview is replete with factual errors].

Shucard, Alan, Fred Moramarco & William Sullivan. “Crosscurrents of Modernism: The Fugitives and Objectivists.” Modern American Poetry, 1865-1950. Cambridge, MA: U of Harvard P, 1989. 231-241.

Silliman, Ron. “Louis Zukofsky.” L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E 4 (Aug. 1978): 1-2. Rpt. Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 405-408; Rpt. The New Sentence (1989): 127-128.

___. “Third Phase Objectivism.” Paideuma 10.1 (Spring 1981): 85-89. Rpt. rev. in The New Sentence (1989): 136-141.

___. “Composition as Action.” Poetics Journal 3 (1983): 73-76. Rpt. rev. as “Why the MLA Can’t Read” in The New Sentence (1989): 142-146; Rpt. unrev. Poetics Journal Digital Archive, eds. Lyn Hejinian & Barrett Watten (Wesleyan UP, 2014): 1446-1450.

___. “Z-Sited Path.” The New Sentence. New York: Roof Books, 1989. 127-146 [incorporates previously published shorter pieces on LZ and “Objectivism” as indicated above, plus another on Williams].

Simon, Linda. “Louis Zukofsky.” Critical Survey of Poetry: English Language Series. Ed. Frank N. Magill. Englewood Cliffs: Salem, 1982. 3220-26.

___. “A Preface to Zukofsky.” Sagetrieb 2.1 (Spring 1983): 89-96.

Slate, Joseph Evans. “The Reisman-Zukofsky Screenplay of “Ulysses”: Its Background and Significance.” Library Chronicle of the University of Texas, new series 20/21 (1982):107-39.

Sloboda, Nicholas. “Introducing the Ludic: The Poetics of Play in Louis Zukofsky’s Fiction.” English Studies in Canada 23.2 (June 1997): 201-215.

Smith, Paul. Pound Revisited. London: Croom Helm, 1983. 133-154 [chapter on “Z-sited: Zukofsky’s ‘A’”].

___. “Pound/Zukofsky.” Dalhousie Review 61 (1981): 356-362.

Sorrentino, Gilbert. Something Said. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984. 68-76.

___. “Foreword” to Louis Zukofsky, Collected Fiction. Elmwood Park, IL: Dalkey Archive Press, 1990. vii-ix.

___. “The Poetry of Louis Zukofsky: The Handles Are Missing.” Village Voice (7 June 1976): 77-78. Rpt. in Something Said (1984): 68-75.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 401-402.

___. “A Word on Zukofsky.” Paideuma 10.1 (Spring 1981). Rpt. in Something Said (1984): 75-76.

Spann, Marcella. [see Booth, Marcella].

Stanley, Sandra Kumanoto. Louis Zukofsky and the Transformation of a Modern American Poetics. Berkeley: U of California P, 1994.

___. “The Link between Williams and Zukofsky.” Journal of Modern Literature 17.1 (Summer 1990): 53-72.

Steven, Mark. Red Modernism: American Poetry and the Spirit of Communism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2017. 162-211 [chap. on “Louis Zukofsky: Cosmic Communism, Cybernetic Socialism”].

Stewart, Susan. “The Signature and the Initial in Zukofsky’s ‘A’.” Reading for Form. Eds. Susan J. Wolfson & Marshall Brown. U of Washington P, 2007. 150-176.

Suter, Anthony. “Basil Bunting et deux poètes américains: Louis Zukofsky et William Carlos Williams.” Caliban 9.8 (Toulouse) (1972): 151-157.

Sylvester, William. “Creeley, Duncan, Zukofsky 1968 – Melody Moves the Light.” Sagetrieb 2.1 (Spring 1983): 97-104.

Symons, Julian. “All = Nothing.” London Magazine 6.5 (Aug.): 82-86.

Taggart, John. Songs of Degrees: Essays on Contemporary Poetry and Poetics. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1994.

___. “Come Shadow Come and Pick This Shadow Up: On Louis Zukofsky.” American Poetry 5.2 (Winter 1988): 42-67. Rpt. Songs of Degrees (1994): 191-219; Artifice and Indeterminacy: An Anthology of New Poetics, ed. Christopher Beach (Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1998): 155-182.

___. “Louis Zukofsky: Songs of Degrees.” Credences: A Journal of Twentieth Century Poetry and Poetics, new series 1.2/3 (Fall/Winter 1981/82): 122-149. Rpt. Songs of Degrees (1994): 82-113.

___. “Moving on to the Beginning.” Afterword to A Useful Art: Essays and Radio Scripts on American Design. Ed. Kenneth Sherwood. Wesleyan UP, 2003. 225-233.

___. “The Use of ‘A.’” boundary 2, 9.2 (Winter 1981): 291-293 [review of “A”].

___. “Zukofsky’s ‘Mantis.’” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 507-522. Rpt. Terrell (1979): 247-262; Songs of Degrees (1994): 51-66.

Terrell, Carroll F., ed. Louis Zukofsky, Man and Poet. Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 1979.

___. “A Bibliography of Works about Louis Zukofsky with Extended Commentary.” In Terrell (1979): 401-38.

___. “Conversations with Celia.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 585-600 [most of this is incorporated into Terrell’s “Eccentric Profile,” except for some further discussions of LZ’s relations with EP].

___. “Louis Zukofsky: An Eccentric Profile.” In Terrell (1979): 31-74.

Tomas, John. “Portrait of the Artist as a Young Jew: Zukofsky’s Poem Beginning ‘The’ in Context.” Sagetrieb 9.1 & 2 (Spring & Fall 1990): 43-64.

Tomlinson, Charles. “Objectivists: Zukofsky and Oppen, a memoir.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 429-445. Rpt. in Terrell (1979): 79-95; Some Americans: A Personal Record (Berkeley: U of California P, 1981): 45-73; American Essays: Making It New (Manchester, Carcanet, 2001: 144-162.

Turquety, Benoît. Danièle Huillet, Jean-Marie Straub: “Objectivists” in Cinema. Trans. Ted Fendt. Amsterdam UP, 2020. Originally published as Danièle Huillet et Jean-Marie Straub, «objectivistes» en cinéma. Lausanne, Switzerland: Éditions l’Âge d’Homme, 2009. [uses the “Objectivist” poets and especially LZ as a critical framework for examining these radical filmmakers]. 

___. “L’Image-arrêt. Pound, Zukofsky, Mallarmé, Huillet and Straub.” Fabula. Littérature, histoire, théorie 2 (2006).

___. “Poésie pour les temps modernes: Louis Zukofsky & le cinema.” 1895. Revue de l’association française de recherche sur l’histoire du cinéma n° 49 (juin 2006): 59-90.

Twitchell-Waas, Jeffrey. “The Airs of Duncan and Zukofsky.” Stephen Collis & Graham Lyons, eds. Reading Duncan Reading: Robert Duncan and the Poetics of Derivation. Iowa City: Iowa UP, 2012. 67-87.

___. “‘And I This Blest’: the Zukofskys’ ‘A’-24.” Golden Handcuffs Review 14 (Winter-Spring 2011): 286-294.

___. “Keep Your Eyes on the Page: Zukofsky’s Bottom: on Shakespeare.” Paideuma 39 (2012): 209-247.

___. “Louis Zukofsky.” Review of Contemporary Fiction 22.3 (Fall 2002): 7-54 [critical overview of LZ’s fiction].

___. “Tuning the Senses: Cavalcanti, Marx, Spinoza and Zukofsky’s ‘A’-9.” Sagetrieb 11 (Winter 1992): 57-91.

___. “What Were the ‘Objectivist’ Poets?” Modernism/Modernity 22.2 (April 2015): 315-341.

Ullman, Alexander. “The Sound of Translation: Joyce, the Zukofskys, and Liturgical Piyutim.” Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 16.1 (Jan. 2018): 43-64.

Vanderborg, Susan. “‘Words Ranging Forms’: Patterns of Exchange in Zukofsky’s Early Lyrics.” In Scroggins (1997): 192-213.

Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. NY: Routledge, 1995. 214-224 [on Catullus].

Vizzaccaro, Massimo. “Translating the Translator: the Case of Louis Zukofsky.” Proceedings of the 20th AISNA Conference (Torino, Italy: 2009): 597-604 [on the Job “translation” in “A”-15].

Wah, Fred. “Open Letter to Louis Zukofsky.” SUM: A Newsletter of Current Workings (Buffalo) 3 (May 1964): 24-25 [ostensively a review of Found Objects in the form of an open letter].

Waldrop, Rosmarie. “Translation: The Zukofsky Catullus.” Lavish Absence: Recalling and Rereading Edmund Jabès. Wesleyan UP, 2002. 72-73 [brief remarks on Jabès’ reaction to Catullus].

Watten, Barrett. “New Meaning and Poetic Vocabulary: From Coleridge to Jackson Mac Low.” Poetics Today 18.2 (Summer 1997): 147-186. Rpt. Constructivist Moment: From Material Text to Cultural Poetics. Wesleyan UP, 2003. 1-44 [includes discussion of “Thanks to the Dictionary”].

___. “Social Formalism: Zukofsky, Andrews, & Habitus in Contemporary Poetry.” North Dakota Quarterly 55.4 (Fall 1987): 365-382.

___. “Zukofsky’s Catullus.” This 4 (Spring 1973): 71.

Weir, Lorraine. Writing Joyce: A Semiotics of the Joyce System. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1989. 82-104 [chap. entitled, “Mousiké/Memory: Sound/Sign: From Joyce to Zukofsky”].

Weisman, Karen A. “‘Self-Taunt’ and ‘The Courses We Tide From’: A Note on Zukofsky’s ‘A’-4.” Sagetrieb 6.1 (Spring 1987): 75-80.

Williams, Jonathan. “Louis Zukofsky.” A Palpable Elysium: Portraits of Genius and Solitude. Jatfrey, NH: David R. Godine, 2002. 64-65 [brief tribute and photo portrait].

___. “Zoo-cough’s Key’s Nest of Poultry.” Kulchur 14 (1964): 4-13.

Williams, William Carlos. Something to Say: William Carlos Williams on Younger Poets. Ed. James E.B. Breslin. New York: New Directions, 1985.

___. “An Extraordinary Sensitivity.” Poetry 60.6 (Sept. 1942): 338-340. Rpt. Something to Say (1985): 129-131 [review of 55 Poems].

___. “A final note” to “A”-1-12. Kyoto, Japan: Origin Press, 1959. 291-296. Rpt. as “Zukofsky” Agenda 3.6 (Dec. 1964): 1-4; Something to Say (1985): 264-267. Trad. Jacques Darras, «À propos de Louis Zukofsky», In’hui n° 14, « William Carlos Williams » (hiver 1980-1981): 80-83.

___. “A New Line Is a New Measure.” The New Quarterly of Poetry 2.2 (Winter 1947-1948): 8-16. Rpt. Something to Say (1985): 161-169 [review of Anew].

___. “An ‘Objectivists’ Anthology.” The Symposium (Concord, NH) 1 (Jan. 1933): 114-116. Rpt. Something to Say (1985): 42-46.

Winters, Yvor. “The Objectivists.” Hound and Horn 6.1 (1932-1933): 158-160 [review of The “Objectivists” Anthology]. Rpt. Yvor Winters: Uncollected Essays and Reviews, ed. Francis Murphy (London: Lane, 1974): 136-138.

Woods, Tim. The Poetics of the Limit: Ethics and Politics in Modern and Contemporary American Poetry. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

___. “‘Art Tracking Music’ Louis Zukofsky’s Po/Ethics of Music.” Sound as Sense: Contemporary U.S. Poetry &/in Music. Ed. Michel Delville and Christine Pagnoulle. Brussels: Peter Lang, 2003.

___. “Louis Zukofsky and Theodor Adorno: The ‘Negative Dialectics’ of Zukofsky’s ‘A.’” Parataxis 3 (Spring 1993): 40-66.

Wray, David. Catullus and the Poetics of Roman Manhood. Cambridge UP, 2001 [includes discussion of LZ’s Catullus in chap. on “A postmodern Catullus?”].

___. “‘cool rare air’: Zukofsky’s Breathing with Catullus and Plautus.” Chicago Review 50.2/3/4 (Winter 2004/05): 52-99.

___. “Louis Zukofsky’s First Half of ‘A’-9.” From Poetry to Verse: Essays on the Making of Modern Poetry. U. of Chicago Library, 2005.

Yamauchi, Koichiro. “Men and Things as ‘Animate Instruments’: Louis Zukofsky in ‘The First Half of “A”-9’ and His Developmental Application of Ezra Pound’s Poetics.” Ezra Pound Review (Nihou Fukushi University, Japan) 14 (2012): 1-20 [in Japanese].

Yannella, Philip R. “On Louis Zukofsky.” Journal of Modern Literature 4.1 (Sept. 1974): 74-87.

Yao, Steven. Translation and the Languages of Modernism: Gender, Politics, Language. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. 209-233 [includes chapter, “’dent those reprobates, Romulus and Remus!’: Lowell, Zukofsky, and the Legacies of Modernist Translation”].

Ziolkowski, Theodore. Gilgamesh Among Us: Modern Encounters with the Ancient Epic. Cornell UP, 2011. 85-88 [brief consideration of the Gilgamesh passage in “A”-23].

Zukofsky, Celia. American Friends. New York: C.Z. Publications, 1979. Available online.

___. A Bibliography of Louis Zukofsky. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1969.

___. “1927-1972.” Paideuma 7.3 (Winter 1978): 371-372.

___. “Year by Year Bibliography of Louis Zukofsky.” Paideuma 7 (1978): 603-10. Rpt. Terrell (1979): 385-392.

___. L.Z.’s notes to 80 flowers (1978/2018). Available online Z-site; see also editor’s introductory notes.

___. See also conversations with CZ by Barry Ahearn and Carroll Terrell above.
___. See also CZ Works.

Zukofsky, Celia, Hugh Seidman, Allen Ginsberg and Robert Creeley. “A Commemorative Evening for Louis Zukofsky.” American Poetry Review 9.1 (1980): 22-27. Rpt. in part Robert Creeley Life and Work: A Sense of Increment. Ed. John Wilson. Ann Arbor, MI: U of Michigan P, 1987. 38-39.

Zukofsky, Paul. “Louis Zukofsky’s Maginalia.” Chicago Review 50.2/3/4 (Winter 2004/05): 101-102 [accompanied by reproductions of two pages of LZ’s marginalia on the King James version of the Bible].

___. “The Baron Speaks.” Afterword plus notes to Little in Collected Fiction. Elmwood Park, IL: Dalkey Archive Press, 1990. 294-303.

___. For comments on “4 Other Countries” and “Starglow” (from 80 Flowers), see LZ Online.


Reviews 1931-1981



 Monroe, Harriet. “The Arrogance of Youth.” Poetry 37.6 (March): 328-333 [response to the “Objectivists” issue of Poetry the previous month].

Gregory, Horace. “The February Number” [letter to the editor]. Poetry 38.1 (April): 51-53 [response to the “Objectivists” issue of Poetry].

Burnshaw, Stanley. “The February Number” [letter to LZ]. Poetry 38.1 (April): 53-55 [response to the “Objectivists” issue of Poetry with LZ’s reply 55-57].

Pratt, E.J. “The Fly-Wheel Lost.” Open House. Eds. William Arthur Deacon & Wilfred Reeves. Ottawa: Graphic Publ. 246-255 [strictly speaking not a review, but a critical response to the “Objectivists” Poetry issue].



Bunting, Basil. “An Open Letter to Louis Zukofsky.” Il Mare (2 Oct. 1932). Rpt. in Dale Reagan, “Basil Bunting obiter dicta.” Basil Bunting: Man and Poet, ed. Carroll F. Terrell (Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation, 1981): 240-243 [also included are misc. remarks on LZ from interviews and letters, 265-267]; Sulfur 14 (1985): 8-10 [critical response to LZ’s “Objectivists” theories].

Walton, Eda Lou. “So—?” Nation (7 Dec.): 569 [An “Objectivists” Anthology].

Parkes, Henry Bamford. “Two Pounds of Poetry.” New English Weekly (22 Dec.): 227-228. Rpt. Ezra Pound: The Critical Heritage. Ed. Eric Homberger. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 239-243 [An “Objectivists” Anthology & Profile, ed. EP].

Winters, Yvor. “The Objectivists.” Hound & Horn 6.1 (1932-33): 158-160. Rpt. Yvor Winters: Uncollected Essays and Reviews. Ed. Francis Murphy. Chicago: Swallow P, 1973. 136-138 [An “Objectivists” Anthology].



Williams, William Carlos. [Review of] An “Objectivists” Anthology. The Symposium 4.1 (Jan.): 114-117. Rpt. Something to Say (1985): 42-46.

Loving, Pierre. “A Remark on Objectivism.” Voices 68 (Feb.-March): 40-45 [An “Objectivists” Anthology].

Schappes, Morris U. “Historic and Contemporary Particulars.” Poetry 41.6 (March): 340-343 [An “Objectivists” Anthology]. [LZ responded in “Objectivists Again,” Poetry 42.2 (May 1933)].

Blakeston, Oswell. [Review of] An “Objectivists” Anthology. Close Up (Territet, Switzerland) 10.3: 293-294.

Leavis, F.R. “The Case of Mr. Pound.” Scrutiny 11 (Dec.): 299-300 [a negative review of Pound’s Active Anthology (1933) with LZ picked out for particular dismissal].



Newman, Charles Henry [Sol Funaroff]. “How Objective is Objectivism?” Dynamo 1.3 (Summer): 26-30 [this is a double review of several Objectivist Press volumes: the first by Funaroff of WCW’s Collected Poems 1921-1931 which also considers “Objectivism” more generally, followed by Herman Spector on Charles Reznikoff’s Jerusalem the Golden and Testimony].

Spector, Herman. “Sadly They Perish (A Dirge for the Objectivist Poets).” Partisan Review 1.3 (June-July): 30-31; rpt. Bastard in the Ragged Suit: Writings of Herman Spector, eds. Bud Johns & Judith S. Clancy (San Francisco: Synergistic Press, 1977): 102-103 [poem].

Hays, H.R. “Nothing But the Truth.” Hound and Horn 7.4 (July-Sept.): 737-738 [review of WCW, Reznikoff and Oppen’s Objectivist Press volumes].

Catel, Jean. “Lettres Anglo-Américaines.” Mercure de France No. 873 (1 Nov.): 639-649 [An “Objectivists” Anthology].



Mangan, Sherry. “They Order This Matter.” Sewanee Review 45: 380-382 [Le Style Apollinaire].



March, Richard. [Review of] New Directions 1938, ed. James Laughlin. Townsman 2.6 (April): 18-19 [includes dismissive remarks about “A”-8].



Colum, Mary M. “The New Books of Poetry.” New York Times Book Review (11 Jan.): 5, 14 [55 Poems, also Calendar: An Anthology of 1941, ed. Norman MacLeod].

Frankenberg, Lloyd. “Poems Real and Surreal.” New Republic (16 March): 371 [55 Poems].

Williams, William Carlos. “An Extraordinary Sensitivity.” Poetry 60.6 (Sept.): 338-340. Rpt. Something to Say (1985): 129-131 [55 Poems].



Koch, Vivienne. “Book Reviews.” Sewanee Review 54: 699-716 [Anew].



Smith, William Jay. “Patchen’s Province and Other Landscapes.” Poetry 70 (May): 108-114 [Anew].

Williams, William Carlos. “A New Line Is a New Measure.” The New Quarterly of Poetry 2.2 (Winter 1947-1948): 8-16. Rpt. Something to Say (1985): 161-169 [Anew].

Golffing, Francis C. “Two Volumes of Verse.” Western Review (Iowa City) 11.2: 111-112 [Anew].



Breit, Harvey. “Poetry—Unadorned.” New York Times Book Review (28 Nov.): 18 [A Test of Poetry].

Niedecker, Lorine. “A Review of Louis Zukofsky’s A Test of Poetry.” Capital Times (Madison, WI) (18 Dec.). Online here.

Humphries, Rolfe. “Verse Chronicle.” Nation (25 Dec.): 730-731 [A Test of Poetry].



Koch, Vivienne. “Some Tests for Poetry.” Sewanee Review 57: 703-709 [A Test of Poetry].



Anon. [Review of] A Test of Poetry. Times Literary Supplement (24 Oct.): 691.



Rexroth, Kenneth. “From the Past, Two Familiar Voices.” New York Times Book Review (28 July): 5 [Some Time].



Beum, Robert. “Epic and Lyric.” Poetry 91 (Jan.): 266-268 [Some Time].



Yates, Peter. “The Position of Poetry Today: Another Look.” Arts in Society (U. of Wisconsin) 1.3 (Winter): 51-62 [brief praise of Barely and Widely].



Kenner, Hugh. “More than Pretty Music.” National Review 9.20 (19 Nov.): 318-320 [“A” 1-12].

Levertov, Denise. “A Necessary Poetry.” Poetry 97.2 (Nov.): 102-109 [“A” 1-12].

Moore, Marianne. “Brooklyn from Clinton Hill.” Vogue 136 (1 Aug.): 82-83, 140. Rpt. A Marianne Moore Reader (1961); The Complete Prose of Marianne Moore (1986): 542 [a passing but enthusiastic mention of A Test of Poetry].



Corman, Cid. “Anew’ Anew.” Kulchur 4, 100-102.



Winters, Warrington. “How It Was.” Nation (10 Feb.): 124-135 [It Was].

Creeley, Robert. “Louis Zukofsky: “A” 1-12 & Barely and Widely.” The Sparrow (Nov. 1962). Rpt. A Quick Graph (1970): 121-123.



Stafford, William. From “Touching Sacred Objects.” Poetry 102.2 (May): 117-118 [16 Once Published].

Deutsch, Babette. Poetry in Our Time: A Critical Survey of Poetry in the English-Speaking World 1900 to 1960, 2nd ed. Doubleday, 1963. 99, 162.



Tomlinson, Charles [unsigned]. “New Critical Approaches.” Times (London) Literary Supplement (6 Aug.): 699. Rpt. T.L.S.: Essays and Reviews from the Times Literary Supplement, 1964. London: Oxford UP, 1965. 177-180 [Bottom].

Davenport, Guy. “Happy Birthday, William Shaxper.” National Review (6 Oct. 1964): 874-876. Rpt. Geography of the Imagination (1981): 100-113 [Bottom].

Bayes, Ronald H. “Two Voices Cutting into Reality.” Grande Ronde Review, La Grande, OR (Fall): 17-18 [Found Objects].

Rich, Adrienne. “Beyond the Heirlooms of Tradition.” Poetry 105.2 (Nov.): 128-129 [Found Objects]. Robert Duncan responded in part to this lukewarm review of LZ in “A Critical Difference of View,” Stony Brook 3/4 (1969): 360-363.

Irby, Kenneth. [Review of] Bottom: on Shakespeare. Kulchur 16 (Winter 1964-65): 98-103.

Anonymous. [Review of] Bottom: on Shakespeare. Agenda 3.6: 29-35.

Wah, Fred. [Review of] Found Objects. Sum: A Newsletter of Current Workings (Buffalo) 3 (1964): 24-25 [a review in the form of an open letter addressed to LZ].



Economou, George. “Found Objects: Louis Zukofsky.” Kulchur 16 (Winter 1964/65): 84-85.

Sorrentino, Gilbert. “Firing a Flare for the Avant-Garde.” Book Week (3 Jan.): 10 [After I’s].

Hayman, David. “Past the Wit of Man.” The Nation 200.9 (1 March) [Bottom].

Nyren, Dorothy. [Review of] All, 1923-1958. Library Journal (1 April): 1727.

Anon. [Review of] Bottom: on Shakespeare. Times Literary Supplement (6 Aug.): 699.

Morse, Samuel French. “Poetry, 1964.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature 6.3 (Autumn): 354-367 [omnibus review including A Test of Poetry and Found Objects].

Coleman, Victor. “All / or Nothing at All.” Work 2 (Fall): 115-117 [All, 1923-1958].

Scott, Winfield Townley. “Music, Image, and Emotion.” Saturday Review (9 Oct.): 57-59 [All, 1923-1958].

Creeley, Robert. “…paradise / our / speech….” Poetry 107.1 (Oct.): 52-55. Rpt. A Quick Graph (1970): 124-127; Collected Essays (1989): 50-53 [All, 1923-1958].

Clark, Thomas. “Zukofsky’s All.” Poetry 107.1 (Oct.): 55-59.

Malanga, Gerard. “Some Thoughts on Bottom and After I’s.” Poetry 107.1 (Oct.): 60-65.

Davie, Donald. “After Sedley, After Pound.” Nation 201 (1 Nov. 1965): 311-313 [All, 1923-1958].



Eberhart, Richard. “Speaking Plain and Fancy.” New York Times Book Review (23 Jan.): 35 [All, 1923-1958].

Federman, David. “More on Louis Zukofsky.” Poetry (Jan.): 271 [brief comment responding to G. Malanga’s review of Bottom and After I’s in Poetry Oct. 1965].

Glauber, Robert H. “All.” Beloit Poetry Journal 16.3 (Spr. 1966): 50 [brief notice of All, 1923-1958].

Carey, John. “Digging in the Sand.” New Statesman (20 May): 736-737 [All, 1923-1958].

Anonymous. “Target Practice.” Times (London) Literary Supplement (16 June): 532 [All, 1923-1958].

Creeley, Robert. “Louis Zukofsky.” Agenda 4.3-4 (Summer 1966): 44-45. Rpt. A Quick Graph (1970): 128-132; Collected Essays (1989): 54-57 [All, 1923-1958].

Symons, Julian. “All = Nothing.” London Magazine 6.5 (Aug.): 82-86 [All, 1923-1958].

Cox, C.B. “Fastidious Poets.” Spectator (21 Oct.): 522-523 [“A” 1-12].

Martin, Graham. “‘All’ for Poetry.” The Listener (27 Oct.): 625-626 [All, 1923-1958].

Feinstein, Elaine. “Speech and Melody.” Cambridge Review (26 Nov.): 139, 141 [All and “A” 1-12].

Curley, Dorothy. [Review of] All, 1956-1964. Library Journal (1 Dec.): 5979.

Gilbert, Jack. [Review of] All, 1923-1958. Kenyon Review 28: 144.

Clark, Leonard. “The Grand Span.” Poetry Review (London) 58: 189-192 [All, 1923-1958].



Spector, Robert D. “The New Poetry of Protest.” Saturday Review (11 Feb.): 38-40 [All, 1956-1964].

Bukowski, Charles. “Three Reviews.” Ole’ 7 (May): [n.p.]. Rpt. Absence of the Hero: Uncollected Stories and Essays, Vol. 2: 1946-1992 (2010): 64-65 [A Test of Poetry].

Wylie, Andrew. [Review of] All, 1956-1964. Harvard Advocate 101 (May): 39-40.

Simpson, Louis. “New Books of Poems.” Harper’s Magazine (Aug.): 89-91 [All, 1956-1964].

Carruth, Hayden. “Louis Zukofsky.” Poetry 110 (Sept.): 420-422 [All, 1956-1964].

Lensing, George. From “The Lyric Plenitude: A Time of Rediscovery.” Southern Review 3: 197-228 [All, 1923-1958].

Merton, Thomas. “Paradise Bugged.” Critic 25 (1967): 69-71. Rpt. as “Zukofsky—The Paradise Ear.” The Literary Essays of Thomas Merton. NY: New Directions, 1981. 128-133 [All. 1956-1964].



Schneider, Duane. [Review of] “A” 1-12. Library Journal (1 Jan.): 87.

Donoghue, Denis. “That Old Eloquence.” New York Review of Books 10.8 (25 April): 16-18 [“A” 1-12].

Schneider, Duane. [Review of] Prepositions. Library Journal (1 June): 2242.

Elliott, Janice. “Passionate Dwarf.” New Statesman (29 Nov.): 762 [Ferdinand].

Burns, Gerald. From “U.S. Poetry 1967—The Books That Matter.” Southwest Review 53: 101-106 [“A” 1-12].

Clark, Leonard. “Motions of the Heart.” Poetry Review (London) 59: 109-111 [All, 1956-1964].

Fraser, George Sutherland. “A Pride of Poets.” Partisan Review 35: 471-472 [“A” 1-12].

Kenner, Hugh. [Review of] All, 1956-64. Agenda 6.2: 91-92.

Mills, Ralph Jr. “The Poems of Two Lives.” Modern Age 12: 423-426 [“A” 1-12].

Morse, Samuel French. From “Twelve Poets.” Virginia Quarterly Review 44: 507-512 [“A” 1-12].

Morse, Samuel French. From “Poetry 1966.” Contemporary Literature 9: 116-117 [All, 1923-1958].



Davenport, Guy. “Ornery Cusses.” National Review 21 (25 March): 288-290 [Ferdinand].

Rosenthal, M.L. “Critic of the Month: VIII – Poets & Critics & Poet-Critics.” Poetry 114 (May): 113-130 [Prepositions].

Davenport, Guy. [Review of] Ferdinand. New York Times Book Review (15 June): 5, 31.

Anonymous. “Echoes in the Labyrinth.” Times (London) Literary Supplement (17 July): 770 [“A” 13-21].

Brownjohn, Alan. “Caesar ‘ad Some.” New Statesman (1 Aug.): 151 [Catullus].

Kessler, Jascha. [Review of] “A”. Los Angeles Times (Calendar) (17 Aug.): 44 [“A” 13-21].

Morse, J. Mitchell. “Brand Names and Others.” Hudson Review 22 (Summer): 316-320 [Ferdinand].

Raffel, Burton. “No Tidbit Love You Outdoors Far as a Bier: Zukofsky’s Catullus.” Arion 8 (Autumn): 435-445.

Demos, John T. [Review of] “A” 13-21. Library Journal (15 Oct.): 3653-3654.

Burns, Gerald. [Review of] “A” 13-21 and Catullus. Southwest Review 54: 448-451.



Carruth, Hayden. “End of the Sixties.” Hudson Review 23.1 (Spring): 188 [“A” 13-21].

Conquest, Robert. “The Abomination of Moab.” Encounter (May): 56 [Catullus].

Carruth, Hayden. “Book of the Week.” Chicago Daily News (13 Sept.) [Little].

Leonard, John. “Books of the Times.” New York Times Book Review (17 Sept.): 45 [Little].

Warner, Jon M. [Review of] Little. Library Journal (1 Oct.): 3307.

Levin, Martin. “Reader’s Report.” New York Times Book Review (11 Oct.): 44-45 [Little].

Riley, Carolyn. [Review of] Little. Best Sellers (15 Oct.): 278.

Davenport, Guy. “Louis Zukofsky.” Agenda 8.3-4 (Autumn-Winter 1970): 130-137 [“A” 13-21 & Catullus].

Saroyan, Aram. [Review of] “’A’ 13-21, A Poem of a Life.” Poetry 117 (Nov.): 118-122; rpt. Door to the River: Essays and Reviews from the 1960s into the Digital Age. Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow P, 2010. 169-175.

Heyden, William. [Review of] Little. Saturday Review 53 (5 Dec.): 31.

Carruth, Hayden. “Words by Louis, Music by Celia: Autobiography by Louis Zukofsky.” New York Times Book Review (6 Dec.): 32, 36.

Coogan, Daniel. “Catullus.” Chelsea 28 (Aug.): 113-118.

Hill, Hugh Creighton. “Transonance and Intransigence.” Grosseteste Review 3.4: 21-25 [Catullus].

Braun, Richard Emil. “The Original Language: Some Postwar Translations of Catullus.” The Grosseteste Review 3.4 (Winter): 28-34.

Hughes, Daniel. From “American Poetry 1969: From B to Z.” Massachusetts Review 11: 662-663 [“A” 13-21].



Anonymous. [Review of] Little. Choice (April): 232.

Webb, Timothy. “With the Zukofskys on Helicon Hill.” Ariel: A Review of International English Literature (U of Calgary) 2.2 (April): 59-65. Coogan, Daniel. “Catullus.” Chelsea 28 (Aug.): 

Commager, Steele. “Catullus.” New York Times Book Review (15 Aug.): 4.

Moore, Nicholas. “Hot Cat on a Cold Tin Roof Blues (or, Get Your Boots Laced, Fullus—Here Comes That Guy ‘Cat’Ullus.” Poetry Review (London) 62: 179-187 [Catullus].

Dawson, Fielding. [Review of] Little. Lillabulero 10/11 (1971): 146-148.

Rexroth, Kenneth. American Poetry in the Twentieth Century. NY: Herder & Herder, 1971. 111.



Cox, Kenneth. “‘A’-24.” Agenda 11.2-3 (Spring-Summer): 89-91.



Dawson, Fielding. [Review of] Arise, Arise. The World 29 (April): 19.

Davenport. Guy. “Zukofsky’s ‘A’-24.” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 2.2 (Spring-Summer 1974): 15-23. Rpt. Geography of the Imagination (1981): 100-107.



Cooney, Seamus. [Review of] “A”-22 & -23. Library Journal (15 Jan.): 343.

Cox, Kenneth. [Review of] “A”-22 & -23. Agenda 13.4-14.1 (Winter-Spring): 127-130.

Kenner, Hugh. [Review of] “A”-22 & -23. New York Times Book Review (14 March): 6-7.

Anonymous. [Review of] “A”-22 & -23. Choice (March) 75.

Pevear, Richard. “Poetry and Wordlessness.” Hudson Review 29.2 (Summer): 305-316 [“A”-22 & -23].



Howard, Ben. “Comment, Four Voices.” Poetry 130 (Aug.): 290-292 [“A”-22 & -23].



Cary, Joseph. “Poems of a Lifetime.” Nation (19 May): 573-574 [“A”].

Creeley, Robert. “All Ears Hear Here.” New York Times Book Review (20 May): 15 [“A”].

Anonymous. [Review of] “A”. Choice (June): 534.

Harmon, William. “Eiron Eyes.” Parnassus 7.2: 5-23 [“A”].

Pratt, William. [Review of] “A”. World Literature Today 53: 685.



Quartermain, Peter. “I Am Different, Let Not a Gloss Embroil You.” Paideuma 9 (Spring):  203-210 [“A”].



Taggart, John. “The Use of ‘A’.” Boundary 2 9 (Winter): 291-293 [“A”].

Lumsden, Bob. “From Z to A.” Quarto (London) 18: 14 [“A”].


Doctoral Dissertations and Theses


Ahearn, William Barry. The Aesthetics of “A”. Diss. Johns Hopkins U, 1978.

Allen, R. G. “A test for poetry”: An Examination of Louis Zukofsky’s ‘Objectivist Principles’ and Poetic Practice. Diss. Thames Polytechnic, 1985. Abstract with full dissertation.

Biglieri, Gregg. Allegories of Quotation: Seeing, Citing and the Sublime in Louis Zukofsky’s Bottom: On Shakespeare. Diss. Temple U, 2007.

Brethé, Serge. L’œil et l’oreille dans la poésie de Louis Zukofsky. Diss. Université Paris IV-Sorbonne, 1997.

Bucher, Vincent. Une pratique sans théorie: Le très long poème américain de seconde génération. Diss. Université Sorbonne Nouvelle-Paris 3, 2012 [chap. on «The poem of a life and a time»: «A» et la mise en oeuvre des durées]. Online.

Cabri, Louis. Social Address and the Modernist Word in Louis Zukofsky, Bruce Andrews, P. Inman. Diss. U of Pennsylvannia, Dec. 2005. Abstract.

Cahill, Timothy Morgan. Louis Zukofsky: Sources of U.S. Modernism. Diss. U of Wollongong, Australia, 2009. Abstract.

Carson, Luke Brendan. Inflationary Measures: Consumption and Depression in Gertrude Stein, Louis Zukofsky and Ezra Pound. Diss. U of California, Los Angeles, 1993.

Chilton, Randolph. The Object Beyond the Image: A Study of Four Objectivist Poets. Diss. U of Wisconsin-Madison, 1981.

Clarke, John Wedgewood. Louis Zukofsky and the Objectivist Project, 1927-1934. Diss, U of York, 2000.

Corey, Joshua M. The American Avant-Pastoral: Ezra Pound, Louis Zukofsky, Ronald Johnson. Diss. Cornell U, 2008.

Cross, Michael. Entropy and Rest: Louis Zukofsky and the Futures of Poetry. Diss, SUNY Buffalo, 2010. Abstract.

Cummings, Carol A. Words Ranging Forms: A Reading of Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’: 1-12. MA Thesis. U of British Columbia, 1971. Abstract.

Dalton, Bridget. Kindness in Modernist American Poetry. Diss. U of East Anglia, 2016 [ chap. on “Kindness and Zukofsky’s ‘Poem Beginning “The”‘: Assimilation and ‘The desire for an inclusive object'”]. Online.

Duddy, Thomas Anthony. Perception and Process: Studies in the Poetry of Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, Denise Levertov, Charles Olson, and Louis Zukofsky. Diss. SUNY Buffalo, 1972.

Fournier, Michael. Words More Variable Than Variables: Verbal Contexts and Objects in the Index to Louis Zukofsky’s “A”. Diss. Georgia State U, 2009.

Hooley, Daniel Matthews. “The classics in paraphrase”: Ezra Pound and Modern Translators of Classical Poetry. Diss. U of Minnesota, 1985.

Horácek, Josef. Eloquent Barbarians: Poetry, Translation and the American Avant-garde. Diss. Emory U, 2014 [chap. on “Pedantry and Play: The Zukofsky Catullus“; see above]. Online.

Houglum, Brook Louise. “This Is Poetry”: U.S. Poetics and Radio, 1930-1960. Diss. U of British Columbia, 2008 [chapter on LZ].

Jennison, Ruth Louise. The Zukofsky Era: An Objectivists’ Modernism. Diss. U of California Berkeley, 2004.

Lang, Stéphanie Abigail. Le Monde, compte rendu. Lectures de Louis Zukofsky. Diss. Université Paris III – Sorbonne Nouvelle, novembre 1999.

Lang, Warren Paul. Zukofsky’s Conception of Poetry and a Reading of His Poem of a Life, “A”. Diss. Indiana U, 1974.

Leggott, Michele Joy. Reading Zukofsky’s 80 Flowers. Diss. U of British Columbia, 1985.

Linder, Andras Gyorgy. The Modern American Long Poem with Special Reference to Louis Zukofsky’s “A”. Diss. U of Toronto, 1980.

Lobo, Julius. Documentary Poetry and American Modernism from the Depression to World War 2. Diss. Pennsylvania State U, 2011 [chap. on “Ezra Pound and Louis Zukofsky’s Documentary Histories of the United States in the Eleven New Cantos and ‘A’-8″]. Online.

Losh, Elizabeth. Silent Readings: Lessons in Objectivist Poetics for Contemporary American Poetry. Diss. U of California, Irvine, 1998.

Maerhofer, John W. Philosophies of Confrontation: Aesthetic and Political Vanguardism, 1917-1956, Diss. City U. of NY, 2007 [chapter “Toward a Revolutionary Formalism: Louis Zukofsky and the Poetics of American Proletarian Literature,” 137-161].

Mandell, Stephen Roy. The Finer Mathematician: An Introduction to the Work of Louis Zukofsky. Diss. Temple U, 1975.

Marinaccio, Rocco. “For labor who will sing?”: Objectivist Poetry and Proletarian Literature, 1918-1941. Diss. U of Wisconsin – Madison, 1995 [chap. “Oh, I’m glad to be living this minute’: Louis Zukofsky and Proletarian”].

Martin, Charles Frederick. Affecting the Ancients: Pound, Zukofsky, and the Catullan Vortex. Diss. State U of New York at Buffalo, 1987.

Matteini, Marta. Louis Zukofsky’s Poetry Between 1928 and 1940. Diss. Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 1990.

McAllister, A. Louis Zukofsky and Basil Bunting: “strugglers in the desert.” Diss. U of Hull, 1993.

McHenry, Patrick. Modernist Totalities and the Aesthetics of Social Possibility. Diss. U of Florida, 2012 [chap. on “Louis Zukofsky, Use-Value and Poetic Production”]. Online.

Nelson, Thomas John. “A” is for “Archive”: A Case Study in the American Long Poem. Diss. U of Texas, Austin, 2007 [primarily about LZ].

Parker, Richard Thomas Arie. From Utopia to Paradise: Louis Zukofsky and the Legacy of Ezra Pound. Diss. U of Sussex, 2010. Abstract.

Parra, Mario Dominguez. “Unstable Identities”: On “A”-9. M.A. thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2004.

Parsons, Marion M. Touch Monkeys: Nonsense Strategies for Reading Twentieth-Century Poetry. Diss. U of Western Ontario, 1991 [Chap. on “‘on edge primmed private privet’: The Sense of Zukofsky’s Sound” (212-219)]. Abstract.

Penberthy, Jenny Lynn. Lorine Niedecker and Louis Zukofsky: Her Poems and Letters. Diss. U of British Columbia, 1985.

Perelman, Robert Lawrence. The Illegible Narratives of Modernist Genius: Pound, Zukofsky, Stein, and Joyce. Diss. U of California, Berkeley, 1990.

Pfaff, Matthew S. Strange New Canons: The Aesthetics of Classical Reception in 20th Century Americcan Experimental Poetics. Diss. U of Michigan, 2013 [chap. on “Translating Opacity: Homophony and the Material Text / ‘Askforaclasic, Inc.’: The Classicas and the Culture Industry” on “Poem beginning ‘The'” and Catullus]. Online.

Ponichtera, Sarah. Yiddish and the Avant-Garde in American Jewish Poetry. Diss. Columbia U, 2012 [chap. on “Submerged Yiddish Structures in the Poetry of Louis Zukofsky”].

Preyss, Robert Jay. Form in the Poetry of Louis Zukofsky. Diss. Kent State U, 1970.

Rieke, Alison Rae. Sense, Nonsense, and the Invention of Languages: James Joyce, Louis Zukofsky, Gertrude Stein. Diss. U of Kentucky, 1984.

Rowe, Griffin. “No Key to the Tangle”: History and Poetic Consciousness in Louis Zukofsky’s “A”. MA thesis Appalachian State U, 2019. Abstract.

Salvato, Nicolas. Uncloseting Drama: Modernism’s Queer Theaters (Ezra Pound, Louis Zukofsky, Gertrude Stein, Djuna Barnes). Diss, Yale U, 2006 [chapter on “A”-21]. Abstract.

Schelb, Edward Newton. Beyond the Boundary Stones: Olson, Zukofsky and the Postmodern Poetics of History. Diss. U of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1990.

Schreur, Robert. Words as Seen Things: The Poetry of Louis Zukofsky. Diss. Johns Hopkins U, 1994.

Scott, David Giles. The Physiology of “Song”: Sound, Meaning, and Politics in “Objectivist” Poetics. Diss. Stanford U, 2003.

Scroggins, Mark Walker. Zukofsky and Stevens: Poetry, Music, and Knowledge. Diss. Cornell U, 1993. Abstract.

Sharp, Thomas F. “Objectivists” 1927-1934: A Critical History of the Work and Association of Louis Zukofsky, William Carlos Williams, Charles Reznikoff, Carl Rakosi, Ezra Pound, George Oppen. Diss, Stanford U, 1982. An updated version dated Nov. 2015 is available online.

Sherwood, Kenneth. The Audible Word: Sounding the Range of Twentieth-Century American Poetics. Diss. SUNY BUffalo, 2001 [chap. on “Hearing Ear Language Sound: The Aural Resources of Louis Zukofsky’s ‘A’“].

Simon, Linda S. The Making of Objectivists. Diss. Brandeis U, 1983.

Smith, Gerard Michael. Sound Foundations: Music, Language and Poetry. Diss. Bowling Green State U, 1989.

Spann, Marcella Joyce. An Analytical and Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Letters in the Louis Zukofsky Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Diss. U of Texas at Austin, 1969.

Stanley, Sandra L. Among American Friends: Louis Zukofsky and the Making of a Modern American Poetics. Diss. U of Southern California, 1988.

Stone, Rachel. By Heart: A Peri-Poetical Reading of Louis Zukofsky’s Valentines. MA thesis, U of Auckland, 1991.

Taggart, John Paul. Intending a Solid Object: A Study of Objectivist Poetics. Diss. Syracuse U, 1974.

Tomas, John. Zukofsky in the Twenties. Diss. U of Chicago, 1991.

Wagstaff, Steel. The “Objectivists”: A Website Dedicated to the “Objectivist” Poets. Diss. U of Wisconsin-Madison, 2018. Online.

Whited, Stephen Rex. Louis Zukofsky and Baruch Spinoza: An Annotated Reading of “A”-1 Through “A”-12. Diss. U of Kentucky, 1992.

Wood, Timothy Clayton. No American Miltons: Melville, Zukofsky and America’s Lost Epic Tradition. Diss. U of California, Berkeley, 2010.

Woods, T. S. Poetics and Politics in the Writings of Louis Zukofsky, Charles Olson, and the “Language” Poets. Diss. U of Southampton, 1992.